2024-04-19 更新

Efficiently Adversarial Examples Generation for Visual-Language Models under Targeted Transfer Scenarios using Diffusion Models

Authors:Qi Guo, Shanmin Pang, Xiaojun Jia, Qing Guo

Targeted transfer-based attacks involving adversarial examples pose a significant threat to large visual-language models (VLMs). However, the state-of-the-art (SOTA) transfer-based attacks incur high costs due to excessive iteration counts. Furthermore, the generated adversarial examples exhibit pronounced adversarial noise and demonstrate limited efficacy in evading defense methods such as DiffPure. To address these issues, inspired by score matching, we introduce AdvDiffVLM, which utilizes diffusion models to generate natural, unrestricted adversarial examples. Specifically, AdvDiffVLM employs Adaptive Ensemble Gradient Estimation to modify the score during the diffusion model’s reverse generation process, ensuring the adversarial examples produced contain natural adversarial semantics and thus possess enhanced transferability. Simultaneously, to enhance the quality of adversarial examples further, we employ the GradCAM-guided Mask method to disperse adversarial semantics throughout the image, rather than concentrating them in a specific area. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves a speedup ranging from 10X to 30X compared to existing transfer-based attack methods, while maintaining superior quality of adversarial examples. Additionally, the generated adversarial examples possess strong transferability and exhibit increased robustness against adversarial defense methods. Notably, AdvDiffVLM can successfully attack commercial VLMs, including GPT-4V, in a black-box manner.


CMNEE: A Large-Scale Document-Level Event Extraction Dataset based on Open-Source Chinese Military News

Authors:Mengna Zhu, Zijie Xu, Kaisheng Zeng, Kaiming Xiao, Mao Wang, Wenjun Ke, Hongbin Huang

Extracting structured event knowledge, including event triggers and corresponding arguments, from military texts is fundamental to many applications, such as intelligence analysis and decision assistance. However, event extraction in the military field faces the data scarcity problem, which impedes the research of event extraction models in this domain. To alleviate this problem, we propose CMNEE, a large-scale, document-level open-source Chinese Military News Event Extraction dataset. It contains 17,000 documents and 29,223 events, which are all manually annotated based on a pre-defined schema for the military domain including 8 event types and 11 argument role types. We designed a two-stage, multi-turns annotation strategy to ensure the quality of CMNEE and reproduced several state-of-the-art event extraction models with a systematic evaluation. The experimental results on CMNEE fall shorter than those on other domain datasets obviously, which demonstrates that event extraction for military domain poses unique challenges and requires further research efforts. Our code and data can be obtained from https://github.com/Mzzzhu/CMNEE.
PDF 13 pages, 7 figures, accepted to LREC-COLING 2024


Advancing the Robustness of Large Language Models through Self-Denoised Smoothing

Authors:Jiabao Ji, Bairu Hou, Zhen Zhang, Guanhua Zhang, Wenqi Fan, Qing Li, Yang Zhang, Gaowen Liu, Sijia Liu, Shiyu Chang

Although large language models (LLMs) have achieved significant success, their vulnerability to adversarial perturbations, including recent jailbreak attacks, has raised considerable concerns. However, the increasing size of these models and their limited access make improving their robustness a challenging task. Among various defense strategies, randomized smoothing has shown great potential for LLMs, as it does not require full access to the model’s parameters or fine-tuning via adversarial training. However, randomized smoothing involves adding noise to the input before model prediction, and the final model’s robustness largely depends on the model’s performance on these noise corrupted data. Its effectiveness is often limited by the model’s sub-optimal performance on noisy data. To address this issue, we propose to leverage the multitasking nature of LLMs to first denoise the noisy inputs and then to make predictions based on these denoised versions. We call this procedure self-denoised smoothing. Unlike previous denoised smoothing techniques in computer vision, which require training a separate model to enhance the robustness of LLMs, our method offers significantly better efficiency and flexibility. Our experimental results indicate that our method surpasses existing methods in both empirical and certified robustness in defending against adversarial attacks for both downstream tasks and human alignments (i.e., jailbreak attacks). Our code is publicly available at https://github.com/UCSB-NLP-Chang/SelfDenoise
PDF Accepted by NAACL 2024. Jiabao, Bairu, Zhen, Guanhua contributed equally. This is an updated version of the paper: arXiv:2307.07171


Enhancing Embedding Performance through Large Language Model-based Text Enrichment and Rewriting

Authors:Nicholas Harris, Anand Butani, Syed Hashmy

Embedding models are crucial for various natural language processing tasks but can be limited by factors such as limited vocabulary, lack of context, and grammatical errors. This paper proposes a novel approach to improve embedding performance by leveraging large language models (LLMs) to enrich and rewrite input text before the embedding process. By utilizing ChatGPT 3.5 to provide additional context, correct inaccuracies, and incorporate metadata, the proposed method aims to enhance the utility and accuracy of embedding models. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated on three datasets: Banking77Classification, TwitterSemEval 2015, and Amazon Counter-factual Classification. Results demonstrate significant improvements over the baseline model on the TwitterSemEval 2015 dataset, with the best-performing prompt achieving a score of 85.34 compared to the previous best of 81.52 on the Massive Text Embedding Benchmark (MTEB) Leaderboard. However, performance on the other two datasets was less impressive, highlighting the importance of considering domain-specific characteristics. The findings suggest that LLM-based text enrichment has shown promising results to improve embedding performance, particularly in certain domains. Hence, numerous limitations in the process of embedding can be avoided.


Simultaneous Interpretation Corpus Construction by Large Language Models in Distant Language Pair

Authors:Yusuke Sakai, Mana Makinae, Hidetaka Kamigaito, Taro Watanabe

In Simultaneous Machine Translation (SiMT) systems, training with a simultaneous interpretation (SI) corpus is an effective method for achieving high-quality yet low-latency systems. However, it is very challenging to curate such a corpus due to limitations in the abilities of annotators, and hence, existing SI corpora are limited. Therefore, we propose a method to convert existing speech translation corpora into interpretation-style data, maintaining the original word order and preserving the entire source content using Large Language Models (LLM-SI-Corpus). We demonstrate that fine-tuning SiMT models in text-to-text and speech-to-text settings with the LLM-SI-Corpus reduces latencies while maintaining the same level of quality as the models trained with offline datasets. The LLM-SI-Corpus is available at \url{https://github.com/yusuke1997/LLM-SI-Corpus}.
PDF 23 pages, 9 figures


Large Language Models in Targeted Sentiment Analysis

Authors:Nicolay Rusnachenko, Anton Golubev, Natalia Loukachevitch

In this paper we investigate the use of decoder-based generative transformers for extracting sentiment towards the named entities in Russian news articles. We study sentiment analysis capabilities of instruction-tuned large language models (LLMs). We consider the dataset of RuSentNE-2023 in our study. The first group of experiments was aimed at the evaluation of zero-shot capabilities of LLMs with closed and open transparencies. The second covers the fine-tuning of Flan-T5 using the “chain-of-thought” (CoT) three-hop reasoning framework (THoR). We found that the results of the zero-shot approaches are similar to the results achieved by baseline fine-tuned encoder-based transformers (BERT-base). Reasoning capabilities of the fine-tuned Flan-T5 models with THoR achieve at least 5% increment with the base-size model compared to the results of the zero-shot experiment. The best results of sentiment analysis on RuSentNE-2023 were achieved by fine-tuned Flan-T5-xl, which surpassed the results of previous state-of-the-art transformer-based classifiers. Our CoT application framework is publicly available: https://github.com/nicolay-r/Reasoning-for-Sentiment-Analysis-Framework
PDF Fine-tuned Flan-T5-xl outperforms the top #1 results of transformer-based classifier in RuSentNE-2023 competition, to appear in Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics No.8/2024 proceedings


V2Xum-LLM: Cross-Modal Video Summarization with Temporal Prompt Instruction Tuning

Authors:Hang Hua, Yunlong Tang, Chenliang Xu, Jiebo Luo

Video summarization aims to create short, accurate, and cohesive summaries of longer videos. Despite the existence of various video summarization datasets, a notable limitation is their limited amount of source videos, which hampers the effective fine-tuning of advanced large vision-language models (VLMs). Additionally, most existing datasets are created for video-to-video summarization, overlooking the contemporary need for multimodal video content summarization. Recent efforts have been made to expand from unimodal to multimodal video summarization, categorizing the task into three sub-tasks based on the summary’s modality: video-to-video (V2V), video-to-text (V2T), and a combination of video and text summarization (V2VT). However, the textual summaries in previous multimodal datasets are inadequate. To address these issues, we introduce Instruct-V2Xum, a cross-modal video summarization dataset featuring 30,000 diverse videos sourced from YouTube, with lengths ranging from 40 to 940 seconds and an average summarization ratio of 16.39\%. Each video summary in Instruct-V2Xum is paired with a textual summary that references specific frame indexes, facilitating the generation of aligned video and textual summaries. In addition, we propose a new video summarization framework named V2Xum-LLM. V2Xum-LLM, specifically V2Xum-LLaMA in this study, is the first framework that unifies different video summarization tasks into one large language model’s (LLM) text decoder and achieves task-controllable video summarization with temporal prompts and task instructions. Experiments show that V2Xum-LLaMA outperforms strong baseline models on multiple video summarization tasks. Furthermore, we propose an enhanced evaluation metric for V2V and V2VT summarization tasks.


MedThink: Explaining Medical Visual Question Answering via Multimodal Decision-Making Rationale

Authors:Xiaotang Gai, Chenyi Zhou, Jiaxiang Liu, Yang Feng, Jian Wu, Zuozhu Liu

Medical Visual Question Answering (MedVQA), which offers language responses to image-based medical inquiries, represents a challenging task and significant advancement in healthcare. It assists medical experts to swiftly interpret medical images, thereby enabling faster and more accurate diagnoses. However, the model interpretability and transparency of existing MedVQA solutions are often limited, posing challenges in understanding their decision-making processes. To address this issue, we devise a semi-automated annotation process to streamlining data preparation and build new benchmark MedVQA datasets R-RAD and R-SLAKE. The R-RAD and R-SLAKE datasets provide intermediate medical decision-making rationales generated by multimodal large language models and human annotations for question-answering pairs in existing MedVQA datasets, i.e., VQA-RAD and SLAKE. Moreover, we design a novel framework which finetunes lightweight pretrained generative models by incorporating medical decision-making rationales into the training process. The framework includes three distinct strategies to generate decision outcomes and corresponding rationales, thereby clearly showcasing the medical decision-making process during reasoning. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method can achieve an accuracy of 83.5% on R-RAD and 86.3% on R-SLAKE, significantly outperforming existing state-of-the-art baselines. Dataset and code will be released.


Authors:Xingyu Fu, Yushi Hu, Bangzheng Li, Yu Feng, Haoyu Wang, Xudong Lin, Dan Roth, Noah A. Smith, Wei-Chiu Ma, Ranjay Krishna

We introduce Blink, a new benchmark for multimodal language models (LLMs) that focuses on core visual perception abilities not found in other evaluations. Most of the Blink tasks can be solved by humans “within a blink” (e.g., relative depth estimation, visual correspondence, forensics detection, and multi-view reasoning). However, we find these perception-demanding tasks cast significant challenges for current multimodal LLMs because they resist mediation through natural language. Blink reformats 14 classic computer vision tasks into 3,807 multiple-choice questions, paired with single or multiple images and visual prompting. While humans get 95.70% accuracy on average, Blink is surprisingly challenging for existing multimodal LLMs: even the best-performing GPT-4V and Gemini achieve accuracies of 51.26% and 45.72%, only 13.17% and 7.63% higher than random guessing, indicating that such perception abilities have not “emerged” yet in recent multimodal LLMs. Our analysis also highlights that specialist CV models could solve these problems much better, suggesting potential pathways for future improvements. We believe Blink will stimulate the community to help multimodal LLMs catch up with human-level visual perception.
PDF Multimodal Benchmark, Project Url: https://zeyofu.github.io/blink/


文章作者: 木子已
版权声明: 本博客所有文章除特別声明外,均采用 CC BY 4.0 许可协议。转载请注明来源 木子已 !