2024-04-03 更新

Grid Diffusion Models for Text-to-Video Generation

Authors:Taegyeong Lee, Soyeong Kwon, Taehwan Kim

Recent advances in the diffusion models have significantly improved text-to-image generation. However, generating videos from text is a more challenging task than generating images from text, due to the much larger dataset and higher computational cost required. Most existing video generation methods use either a 3D U-Net architecture that considers the temporal dimension or autoregressive generation. These methods require large datasets and are limited in terms of computational costs compared to text-to-image generation. To tackle these challenges, we propose a simple but effective novel grid diffusion for text-to-video generation without temporal dimension in architecture and a large text-video paired dataset. We can generate a high-quality video using a fixed amount of GPU memory regardless of the number of frames by representing the video as a grid image. Additionally, since our method reduces the dimensions of the video to the dimensions of the image, various image-based methods can be applied to videos, such as text-guided video manipulation from image manipulation. Our proposed method outperforms the existing methods in both quantitative and qualitative evaluations, demonstrating the suitability of our model for real-world video generation.
PDF Accepted to CVPR 2024


LAKE-RED: Camouflaged Images Generation by Latent Background Knowledge Retrieval-Augmented Diffusion

Authors:Pancheng Zhao, Peng Xu, Pengda Qin, Deng-Ping Fan, Zhicheng Zhang, Guoli Jia, Bowen Zhou, Jufeng Yang

Camouflaged vision perception is an important vision task with numerous practical applications. Due to the expensive collection and labeling costs, this community struggles with a major bottleneck that the species category of its datasets is limited to a small number of object species. However, the existing camouflaged generation methods require specifying the background manually, thus failing to extend the camouflaged sample diversity in a low-cost manner. In this paper, we propose a Latent Background Knowledge Retrieval-Augmented Diffusion (LAKE-RED) for camouflaged image generation. To our knowledge, our contributions mainly include: (1) For the first time, we propose a camouflaged generation paradigm that does not need to receive any background inputs. (2) Our LAKE-RED is the first knowledge retrieval-augmented method with interpretability for camouflaged generation, in which we propose an idea that knowledge retrieval and reasoning enhancement are separated explicitly, to alleviate the task-specific challenges. Moreover, our method is not restricted to specific foreground targets or backgrounds, offering a potential for extending camouflaged vision perception to more diverse domains. (3) Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the existing approaches, generating more realistic camouflage images.
PDF Accepted by CVPR 2024


SGDFormer: One-stage Transformer-based Architecture for Cross-Spectral Stereo Image Guided Denoising

Authors:Runmin Zhang, Zhu Yu, Zehua Sheng, Jiacheng Ying, Si-Yuan Cao, Shu-Jie Chen, Bailin Yang, Junwei Li, Hui-Liang Shen

Cross-spectral image guided denoising has shown its great potential in recovering clean images with rich details, such as using the near-infrared image to guide the denoising process of the visible one. To obtain such image pairs, a feasible and economical way is to employ a stereo system, which is widely used on mobile devices. Current works attempt to generate an aligned guidance image to handle the disparity between two images. However, due to occlusion, spectral differences and noise degradation, the aligned guidance image generally exists ghosting and artifacts, leading to an unsatisfactory denoised result. To address this issue, we propose a one-stage transformer-based architecture, named SGDFormer, for cross-spectral Stereo image Guided Denoising. The architecture integrates the correspondence modeling and feature fusion of stereo images into a unified network. Our transformer block contains a noise-robust cross-attention (NRCA) module and a spatially variant feature fusion (SVFF) module. The NRCA module captures the long-range correspondence of two images in a coarse-to-fine manner to alleviate the interference of noise. The SVFF module further enhances salient structures and suppresses harmful artifacts through dynamically selecting useful information. Thanks to the above design, our SGDFormer can restore artifact-free images with fine structures, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on various datasets. Additionally, our SGDFormer can be extended to handle other unaligned cross-model guided restoration tasks such as guided depth super-resolution.


CHAIN: Enhancing Generalization in Data-Efficient GANs via lipsCHitz continuity constrAIned Normalization

Authors:Yao Ni, Piotr Koniusz

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) significantly advanced image generation but their performance heavily depends on abundant training data. In scenarios with limited data, GANs often struggle with discriminator overfitting and unstable training. Batch Normalization (BN), despite being known for enhancing generalization and training stability, has rarely been used in the discriminator of Data-Efficient GANs. Our work addresses this gap by identifying a critical flaw in BN: the tendency for gradient explosion during the centering and scaling steps. To tackle this issue, we present CHAIN (lipsCHitz continuity constrAIned Normalization), which replaces the conventional centering step with zero-mean regularization and integrates a Lipschitz continuity constraint in the scaling step. CHAIN further enhances GAN training by adaptively interpolating the normalized and unnormalized features, effectively avoiding discriminator overfitting. Our theoretical analyses firmly establishes CHAIN’s effectiveness in reducing gradients in latent features and weights, improving stability and generalization in GAN training. Empirical evidence supports our theory. CHAIN achieves state-of-the-art results in data-limited scenarios on CIFAR-10/100, ImageNet, five low-shot and seven high-resolution few-shot image datasets.
PDF Accepted by CVPR2024, 26 pages full version


IPT-V2: Efficient Image Processing Transformer using Hierarchical Attentions

Authors:Zhijun Tu, Kunpeng Du, Hanting Chen, Hailing Wang, Wei Li, Jie Hu, Yunhe Wang

Recent advances have demonstrated the powerful capability of transformer architecture in image restoration. However, our analysis indicates that existing transformerbased methods can not establish both exact global and local dependencies simultaneously, which are much critical to restore the details and missing content of degraded images. To this end, we present an efficient image processing transformer architecture with hierarchical attentions, called IPTV2, adopting a focal context self-attention (FCSA) and a global grid self-attention (GGSA) to obtain adequate token interactions in local and global receptive fields. Specifically, FCSA applies the shifted window mechanism into the channel self-attention, helps capture the local context and mutual interaction across channels. And GGSA constructs long-range dependencies in the cross-window grid, aggregates global information in spatial dimension. Moreover, we introduce structural re-parameterization technique to feed-forward network to further improve the model capability. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed IPT-V2 achieves state-of-the-art results on various image processing tasks, covering denoising, deblurring, deraining and obtains much better trade-off for performance and computational complexity than previous methods. Besides, we extend our method to image generation as latent diffusion backbone, and significantly outperforms DiTs.


Action Detection via an Image Diffusion Process

Authors:Lin Geng Foo, Tianjiao Li, Hossein Rahmani, Jun Liu

Action detection aims to localize the starting and ending points of action instances in untrimmed videos, and predict the classes of those instances. In this paper, we make the observation that the outputs of the action detection task can be formulated as images. Thus, from a novel perspective, we tackle action detection via a three-image generation process to generate starting point, ending point and action-class predictions as images via our proposed Action Detection Image Diffusion (ADI-Diff) framework. Furthermore, since our images differ from natural images and exhibit special properties, we further explore a Discrete Action-Detection Diffusion Process and a Row-Column Transformer design to better handle their processing. Our ADI-Diff framework achieves state-of-the-art results on two widely-used datasets.
PDF Accepted to CVPR 2024


HairFastGAN: Realistic and Robust Hair Transfer with a Fast Encoder-Based Approach

Authors:Maxim Nikolaev, Mikhail Kuznetsov, Dmitry Vetrov, Aibek Alanov

Our paper addresses the complex task of transferring a hairstyle from a reference image to an input photo for virtual hair try-on. This task is challenging due to the need to adapt to various photo poses, the sensitivity of hairstyles, and the lack of objective metrics. The current state of the art hairstyle transfer methods use an optimization process for different parts of the approach, making them inexcusably slow. At the same time, faster encoder-based models are of very low quality because they either operate in StyleGAN’s W+ space or use other low-dimensional image generators. Additionally, both approaches have a problem with hairstyle transfer when the source pose is very different from the target pose, because they either don’t consider the pose at all or deal with it inefficiently. In our paper, we present the HairFast model, which uniquely solves these problems and achieves high resolution, near real-time performance, and superior reconstruction compared to optimization problem-based methods. Our solution includes a new architecture operating in the FS latent space of StyleGAN, an enhanced inpainting approach, and improved encoders for better alignment, color transfer, and a new encoder for post-processing. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated on realism metrics after random hairstyle transfer and reconstruction when the original hairstyle is transferred. In the most difficult scenario of transferring both shape and color of a hairstyle from different images, our method performs in less than a second on the Nvidia V100. Our code is available at https://github.com/AIRI-Institute/HairFastGAN.


Condition-Aware Neural Network for Controlled Image Generation

Authors:Han Cai, Muyang Li, Zhuoyang Zhang, Qinsheng Zhang, Ming-Yu Liu, Song Han

We present Condition-Aware Neural Network (CAN), a new method for adding control to image generative models. In parallel to prior conditional control methods, CAN controls the image generation process by dynamically manipulating the weight of the neural network. This is achieved by introducing a condition-aware weight generation module that generates conditional weight for convolution/linear layers based on the input condition. We test CAN on class-conditional image generation on ImageNet and text-to-image generation on COCO. CAN consistently delivers significant improvements for diffusion transformer models, including DiT and UViT. In particular, CAN combined with EfficientViT (CaT) achieves 2.78 FID on ImageNet 512x512, surpassing DiT-XL/2 while requiring 52x fewer MACs per sampling step.


Video Interpolation with Diffusion Models

Authors:Siddhant Jain, Daniel Watson, Eric Tabellion, Aleksander Hołyński, Ben Poole, Janne Kontkanen

We present VIDIM, a generative model for video interpolation, which creates short videos given a start and end frame. In order to achieve high fidelity and generate motions unseen in the input data, VIDIM uses cascaded diffusion models to first generate the target video at low resolution, and then generate the high-resolution video conditioned on the low-resolution generated video. We compare VIDIM to previous state-of-the-art methods on video interpolation, and demonstrate how such works fail in most settings where the underlying motion is complex, nonlinear, or ambiguous while VIDIM can easily handle such cases. We additionally demonstrate how classifier-free guidance on the start and end frame and conditioning the super-resolution model on the original high-resolution frames without additional parameters unlocks high-fidelity results. VIDIM is fast to sample from as it jointly denoises all the frames to be generated, requires less than a billion parameters per diffusion model to produce compelling results, and still enjoys scalability and improved quality at larger parameter counts.
PDF CVPR 2024, Project page at https://vidim-interpolation.github.io/


StructLDM: Structured Latent Diffusion for 3D Human Generation

Authors:Tao Hu, Fangzhou Hong, Ziwei Liu

Recent 3D human generative models have achieved remarkable progress by learning 3D-aware GANs from 2D images. However, existing 3D human generative methods model humans in a compact 1D latent space, ignoring the articulated structure and semantics of human body topology. In this paper, we explore more expressive and higher-dimensional latent space for 3D human modeling and propose StructLDM, a diffusion-based unconditional 3D human generative model, which is learned from 2D images. StructLDM solves the challenges imposed due to the high-dimensional growth of latent space with three key designs: 1) A semantic structured latent space defined on the dense surface manifold of a statistical human body template. 2) A structured 3D-aware auto-decoder that factorizes the global latent space into several semantic body parts parameterized by a set of conditional structured local NeRFs anchored to the body template, which embeds the properties learned from the 2D training data and can be decoded to render view-consistent humans under different poses and clothing styles. 3) A structured latent diffusion model for generative human appearance sampling. Extensive experiments validate StructLDM’s state-of-the-art generation performance and illustrate the expressiveness of the structured latent space over the well-adopted 1D latent space. Notably, StructLDM enables different levels of controllable 3D human generation and editing, including pose/view/shape control, and high-level tasks including compositional generations, part-aware clothing editing, 3D virtual try-on, etc. Our project page is at: https://taohuumd.github.io/projects/StructLDM/.
PDF Project page: https://taohuumd.github.io/projects/StructLDM/


An image speaks a thousand words, but can everyone listen? On translating images for cultural relevance

Authors:Simran Khanuja, Sathyanarayanan Ramamoorthy, Yueqi Song, Graham Neubig

Given the rise of multimedia content, human translators increasingly focus on culturally adapting not only words but also other modalities such as images to convey the same meaning. While several applications stand to benefit from this, machine translation systems remain confined to dealing with language in speech and text. In this work, we take a first step towards translating images to make them culturally relevant. First, we build three pipelines comprising state-of-the-art generative models to do the task. Next, we build a two-part evaluation dataset: i) concept: comprising 600 images that are cross-culturally coherent, focusing on a single concept per image, and ii) application: comprising 100 images curated from real-world applications. We conduct a multi-faceted human evaluation of translated images to assess for cultural relevance and meaning preservation. We find that as of today, image-editing models fail at this task, but can be improved by leveraging LLMs and retrievers in the loop. Best pipelines can only translate 5% of images for some countries in the easier concept dataset and no translation is successful for some countries in the application dataset, highlighting the challenging nature of the task. Our code and data is released here: https://github.com/simran-khanuja/image-transcreation.


Evaluating Text-to-Visual Generation with Image-to-Text Generation

Authors:Zhiqiu Lin, Deepak Pathak, Baiqi Li, Jiayao Li, Xide Xia, Graham Neubig, Pengchuan Zhang, Deva Ramanan

Despite significant progress in generative AI, comprehensive evaluation remains challenging because of the lack of effective metrics and standardized benchmarks. For instance, the widely-used CLIPScore measures the alignment between a (generated) image and text prompt, but it fails to produce reliable scores for complex prompts involving compositions of objects, attributes, and relations. One reason is that text encoders of CLIP can notoriously act as a “bag of words”, conflating prompts such as “the horse is eating the grass” with “the grass is eating the horse”. To address this, we introduce the VQAScore, which uses a visual-question-answering (VQA) model to produce an alignment score by computing the probability of a “Yes” answer to a simple “Does this figure show ‘{text}’?” question. Though simpler than prior art, VQAScore computed with off-the-shelf models produces state-of-the-art results across many (8) image-text alignment benchmarks. We also compute VQAScore with an in-house model that follows best practices in the literature. For example, we use a bidirectional image-question encoder that allows image embeddings to depend on the question being asked (and vice versa). Our in-house model, CLIP-FlanT5, outperforms even the strongest baselines that make use of the proprietary GPT-4V. Interestingly, although we train with only images, VQAScore can also align text with video and 3D models. VQAScore allows researchers to benchmark text-to-visual generation using complex texts that capture the compositional structure of real-world prompts. We introduce GenAI-Bench, a more challenging benchmark with 1,600 compositional text prompts that require parsing scenes, objects, attributes, relationships, and high-order reasoning like comparison and logic. GenAI-Bench also offers over 15,000 human ratings for leading image and video generation models such as Stable Diffusion, DALL-E 3, and Gen2.
PDF We open-source our data, model, and code at: https://github.com/linzhiqiu/t2v_metrics ; Project page: https://linzhiqiu.github.io/papers/vqascore


Measuring Style Similarity in Diffusion Models

Authors:Gowthami Somepalli, Anubhav Gupta, Kamal Gupta, Shramay Palta, Micah Goldblum, Jonas Geiping, Abhinav Shrivastava, Tom Goldstein

Generative models are now widely used by graphic designers and artists. Prior works have shown that these models remember and often replicate content from their training data during generation. Hence as their proliferation increases, it has become important to perform a database search to determine whether the properties of the image are attributable to specific training data, every time before a generated image is used for professional purposes. Existing tools for this purpose focus on retrieving images of similar semantic content. Meanwhile, many artists are concerned with style replication in text-to-image models. We present a framework for understanding and extracting style descriptors from images. Our framework comprises a new dataset curated using the insight that style is a subjective property of an image that captures complex yet meaningful interactions of factors including but not limited to colors, textures, shapes, etc. We also propose a method to extract style descriptors that can be used to attribute style of a generated image to the images used in the training dataset of a text-to-image model. We showcase promising results in various style retrieval tasks. We also quantitatively and qualitatively analyze style attribution and matching in the Stable Diffusion model. Code and artifacts are available at https://github.com/learn2phoenix/CSD.


MagicMirror: Fast and High-Quality Avatar Generation with a Constrained Search Space

Authors:Armand Comas-Massagué, Di Qiu, Menglei Chai, Marcel Bühler, Amit Raj, Ruiqi Gao, Qiangeng Xu, Mark Matthews, Paulo Gotardo, Octavia Camps, Sergio Orts-Escolano, Thabo Beeler

We introduce a novel framework for 3D human avatar generation and personalization, leveraging text prompts to enhance user engagement and customization. Central to our approach are key innovations aimed at overcoming the challenges in photo-realistic avatar synthesis. Firstly, we utilize a conditional Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) model, trained on a large-scale unannotated multi-view dataset, to create a versatile initial solution space that accelerates and diversifies avatar generation. Secondly, we develop a geometric prior, leveraging the capabilities of Text-to-Image Diffusion Models, to ensure superior view invariance and enable direct optimization of avatar geometry. These foundational ideas are complemented by our optimization pipeline built on Variational Score Distillation (VSD), which mitigates texture loss and over-saturation issues. As supported by our extensive experiments, these strategies collectively enable the creation of custom avatars with unparalleled visual quality and better adherence to input text prompts. You can find more results and videos in our website: https://syntec-research.github.io/MagicMirror


DiffAgent: Fast and Accurate Text-to-Image API Selection with Large Language Model

Authors:Lirui Zhao, Yue Yang, Kaipeng Zhang, Wenqi Shao, Yuxin Zhang, Yu Qiao, Ping Luo, Rongrong Ji

Text-to-image (T2I) generative models have attracted significant attention and found extensive applications within and beyond academic research. For example, the Civitai community, a platform for T2I innovation, currently hosts an impressive array of 74,492 distinct models. However, this diversity presents a formidable challenge in selecting the most appropriate model and parameters, a process that typically requires numerous trials. Drawing inspiration from the tool usage research of large language models (LLMs), we introduce DiffAgent, an LLM agent designed to screen the accurate selection in seconds via API calls. DiffAgent leverages a novel two-stage training framework, SFTA, enabling it to accurately align T2I API responses with user input in accordance with human preferences. To train and evaluate DiffAgent’s capabilities, we present DABench, a comprehensive dataset encompassing an extensive range of T2I APIs from the community. Our evaluations reveal that DiffAgent not only excels in identifying the appropriate T2I API but also underscores the effectiveness of the SFTA training framework. Codes are available at https://github.com/OpenGVLab/DiffAgent.
PDF Published as a conference paper at CVPR 2024


DPMesh: Exploiting Diffusion Prior for Occluded Human Mesh Recovery

Authors:Yixuan Zhu, Ao Li, Yansong Tang, Wenliang Zhao, Jie Zhou, Jiwen Lu

The recovery of occluded human meshes presents challenges for current methods due to the difficulty in extracting effective image features under severe occlusion. In this paper, we introduce DPMesh, an innovative framework for occluded human mesh recovery that capitalizes on the profound diffusion prior about object structure and spatial relationships embedded in a pre-trained text-to-image diffusion model. Unlike previous methods reliant on conventional backbones for vanilla feature extraction, DPMesh seamlessly integrates the pre-trained denoising U-Net with potent knowledge as its image backbone and performs a single-step inference to provide occlusion-aware information. To enhance the perception capability for occluded poses, DPMesh incorporates well-designed guidance via condition injection, which produces effective controls from 2D observations for the denoising U-Net. Furthermore, we explore a dedicated noisy key-point reasoning approach to mitigate disturbances arising from occlusion and crowded scenarios. This strategy fully unleashes the perceptual capability of the diffusion prior, thereby enhancing accuracy. Extensive experiments affirm the efficacy of our framework, as we outperform state-of-the-art methods on both occlusion-specific and standard datasets. The persuasive results underscore its ability to achieve precise and robust 3D human mesh recovery, particularly in challenging scenarios involving occlusion and crowded scenes.
PDF Accepted by IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 2024


Diffusion Deepfake

Authors:Chaitali Bhattacharyya, Hanxiao Wang, Feng Zhang, Sungho Kim, Xiatian Zhu

Recent progress in generative AI, primarily through diffusion models, presents significant challenges for real-world deepfake detection. The increased realism in image details, diverse content, and widespread accessibility to the general public complicates the identification of these sophisticated deepfakes. Acknowledging the urgency to address the vulnerability of current deepfake detectors to this evolving threat, our paper introduces two extensive deepfake datasets generated by state-of-the-art diffusion models as other datasets are less diverse and low in quality. Our extensive experiments also showed that our dataset is more challenging compared to the other face deepfake datasets. Our strategic dataset creation not only challenge the deepfake detectors but also sets a new benchmark for more evaluation. Our comprehensive evaluation reveals the struggle of existing detection methods, often optimized for specific image domains and manipulations, to effectively adapt to the intricate nature of diffusion deepfakes, limiting their practical utility. To address this critical issue, we investigate the impact of enhancing training data diversity on representative detection methods. This involves expanding the diversity of both manipulation techniques and image domains. Our findings underscore that increasing training data diversity results in improved generalizability. Moreover, we propose a novel momentum difficulty boosting strategy to tackle the additional challenge posed by training data heterogeneity. This strategy dynamically assigns appropriate sample weights based on learning difficulty, enhancing the model’s adaptability to both easy and challenging samples. Extensive experiments on both existing and newly proposed benchmarks demonstrate that our model optimization approach surpasses prior alternatives significantly.
PDF 28 pages including Supplementary material


FashionEngine: Interactive Generation and Editing of 3D Clothed Humans

Authors:Tao Hu, Fangzhou Hong, Zhaoxi Chen, Ziwei Liu

We present FashionEngine, an interactive 3D human generation and editing system that allows us to design 3D digital humans in a way that aligns with how humans interact with the world, such as natural languages, visual perceptions, and hand-drawing. FashionEngine automates the 3D human production with three key components: 1) A pre-trained 3D human diffusion model that learns to model 3D humans in a semantic UV latent space from 2D image training data, which provides strong priors for diverse generation and editing tasks. 2) Multimodality-UV Space encoding the texture appearance, shape topology, and textual semantics of human clothing in a canonical UV-aligned space, which faithfully aligns the user multimodal inputs with the implicit UV latent space for controllable 3D human editing. The multimodality-UV space is shared across different user inputs, such as texts, images, and sketches, which enables various joint multimodal editing tasks. 3) Multimodality-UV Aligned Sampler learns to sample high-quality and diverse 3D humans from the diffusion prior for multimodal user inputs. Extensive experiments validate FashionEngine’s state-of-the-art performance for conditional generation/editing tasks. In addition, we present an interactive user interface for our FashionEngine that enables both conditional and unconditional generation tasks, and editing tasks including pose/view/shape control, text-, image-, and sketch-driven 3D human editing and 3D virtual try-on, in a unified framework. Our project page is at: https://taohuumd.github.io/projects/FashionEngine.
PDF Project Page: https://taohuumd.github.io/projects/FashionEngine


MotionChain: Conversational Motion Controllers via Multimodal Prompts

Authors:Biao Jiang, Xin Chen, Chi Zhang, Fukun Yin, Zhuoyuan Li, Gang YU, Jiayuan Fan

Recent advancements in language models have demonstrated their adeptness in conducting multi-turn dialogues and retaining conversational context. However, this proficiency remains largely unexplored in other multimodal generative models, particularly in human motion models. By integrating multi-turn conversations in controlling continuous virtual human movements, generative human motion models can achieve an intuitive and step-by-step process of human task execution for humanoid robotics, game agents, or other embodied systems. In this work, we present MotionChain, a conversational human motion controller to generate continuous and long-term human motion through multimodal prompts. Specifically, MotionChain consists of multi-modal tokenizers that transform various data types such as text, image, and motion, into discrete tokens, coupled with a Vision-Motion-aware Language model. By leveraging large-scale language, vision-language, and vision-motion data to assist motion-related generation tasks, MotionChain thus comprehends each instruction in multi-turn conversation and generates human motions followed by these prompts. Extensive experiments validate the efficacy of MotionChain, demonstrating state-of-the-art performance in conversational motion generation, as well as more intuitive manners of controlling and interacting with virtual humans.
PDF 14 pages, 4 figures


Disentangled Pre-training for Human-Object Interaction Detection

Authors:Zhuolong Li, Xingao Li, Changxing Ding, Xiangmin Xu

Detecting human-object interaction (HOI) has long been limited by the amount of supervised data available. Recent approaches address this issue by pre-training according to pseudo-labels, which align object regions with HOI triplets parsed from image captions. However, pseudo-labeling is tricky and noisy, making HOI pre-training a complex process. Therefore, we propose an efficient disentangled pre-training method for HOI detection (DP-HOI) to address this problem. First, DP-HOI utilizes object detection and action recognition datasets to pre-train the detection and interaction decoder layers, respectively. Then, we arrange these decoder layers so that the pre-training architecture is consistent with the downstream HOI detection task. This facilitates efficient knowledge transfer. Specifically, the detection decoder identifies reliable human instances in each action recognition dataset image, generates one corresponding query, and feeds it into the interaction decoder for verb classification. Next, we combine the human instance verb predictions in the same image and impose image-level supervision. The DP-HOI structure can be easily adapted to the HOI detection task, enabling effective model parameter initialization. Therefore, it significantly enhances the performance of existing HOI detection models on a broad range of rare categories. The code and pre-trained weight are available at https://github.com/xingaoli/DP-HOI.
PDF Accepted by CVPR2024


Co-Speech Gesture Video Generation via Motion-Decoupled Diffusion Model

Authors:Xu He, Qiaochu Huang, Zhensong Zhang, Zhiwei Lin, Zhiyong Wu, Sicheng Yang, Minglei Li, Zhiyi Chen, Songcen Xu, Xiaofei Wu

Co-speech gestures, if presented in the lively form of videos, can achieve superior visual effects in human-machine interaction. While previous works mostly generate structural human skeletons, resulting in the omission of appearance information, we focus on the direct generation of audio-driven co-speech gesture videos in this work. There are two main challenges: 1) A suitable motion feature is needed to describe complex human movements with crucial appearance information. 2) Gestures and speech exhibit inherent dependencies and should be temporally aligned even of arbitrary length. To solve these problems, we present a novel motion-decoupled framework to generate co-speech gesture videos. Specifically, we first introduce a well-designed nonlinear TPS transformation to obtain latent motion features preserving essential appearance information. Then a transformer-based diffusion model is proposed to learn the temporal correlation between gestures and speech, and performs generation in the latent motion space, followed by an optimal motion selection module to produce long-term coherent and consistent gesture videos. For better visual perception, we further design a refinement network focusing on missing details of certain areas. Extensive experimental results show that our proposed framework significantly outperforms existing approaches in both motion and video-related evaluations. Our code, demos, and more resources are available at https://github.com/thuhcsi/S2G-MDDiffusion.
PDF 22 pages, 8 figures, CVPR 2024


Real, fake and synthetic faces - does the coin have three sides?

Authors:Shahzeb Naeem, Ramzi Al-Sharawi, Muhammad Riyyan Khan, Usman Tariq, Abhinav Dhall, Hasan Al-Nashash

With the ever-growing power of generative artificial intelligence, deepfake and artificially generated (synthetic) media have continued to spread online, which creates various ethical and moral concerns regarding their usage. To tackle this, we thus present a novel exploration of the trends and patterns observed in real, deepfake and synthetic facial images. The proposed analysis is done in two parts: firstly, we incorporate eight deep learning models and analyze their performances in distinguishing between the three classes of images. Next, we look to further delve into the similarities and differences between these three sets of images by investigating their image properties both in the context of the entire image as well as in the context of specific regions within the image. ANOVA test was also performed and provided further clarity amongst the patterns associated between the images of the three classes. From our findings, we observe that the investigated deeplearning models found it easier to detect synthetic facial images, with the ViT Patch-16 model performing best on this task with a class-averaged sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of 97.37%, 98.69%, 97.48%, and 98.25%, respectively. This observation was supported by further analysis of various image properties. We saw noticeable differences across the three category of images. This analysis can help us build better algorithms for facial image generation, and also shows that synthetic, deepfake and real face images are indeed three different classes.


Bi-LORA: A Vision-Language Approach for Synthetic Image Detection

Authors:Mamadou Keita, Wassim Hamidouche, Hessen Bougueffa Eutamene, Abdenour Hadid, Abdelmalik Taleb-Ahmed

Advancements in deep image synthesis techniques, such as generative adversarial networks (GANs) and diffusion models (DMs), have ushered in an era of generating highly realistic images. While this technological progress has captured significant interest, it has also raised concerns about the potential difficulty in distinguishing real images from their synthetic counterparts. This paper takes inspiration from the potent convergence capabilities between vision and language, coupled with the zero-shot nature of vision-language models (VLMs). We introduce an innovative method called Bi-LORA that leverages VLMs, combined with low-rank adaptation (LORA) tuning techniques, to enhance the precision of synthetic image detection for unseen model-generated images. The pivotal conceptual shift in our methodology revolves around reframing binary classification as an image captioning task, leveraging the distinctive capabilities of cutting-edge VLM, notably bootstrapping language image pre-training (BLIP2). Rigorous and comprehensive experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach, particularly in detecting unseen diffusion-generated images from unknown diffusion-based generative models during training, showcasing robustness to noise, and demonstrating generalization capabilities to GANs. The obtained results showcase an impressive average accuracy of 93.41% in synthetic image detection on unseen generation models. The code and models associated with this research can be publicly accessed at https://github.com/Mamadou-Keita/VLM-DETECT.


AUTODIFF: Autoregressive Diffusion Modeling for Structure-based Drug Design

Authors:Xinze Li, Penglei Wang, Tianfan Fu, Wenhao Gao, Chengtao Li, Leilei Shi, Junhong Liu

Structure-based drug design (SBDD), which aims to generate molecules that can bind tightly to the target protein, is an essential problem in drug discovery, and previous approaches have achieved initial success. However, most existing methods still suffer from invalid local structure or unrealistic conformation issues, which are mainly due to the poor leaning of bond angles or torsional angles. To alleviate these problems, we propose AUTODIFF, a diffusion-based fragment-wise autoregressive generation model. Specifically, we design a novel molecule assembly strategy named conformal motif that preserves the conformation of local structures of molecules first, then we encode the interaction of the protein-ligand complex with an SE(3)-equivariant convolutional network and generate molecules motif-by-motif with diffusion modeling. In addition, we also improve the evaluation framework of SBDD by constraining the molecular weights of the generated molecules in the same range, together with some new metrics, which make the evaluation more fair and practical. Extensive experiments on CrossDocked2020 demonstrate that our approach outperforms the existing models in generating realistic molecules with valid structures and conformations while maintaining high binding affinity.


GeneAvatar: Generic Expression-Aware Volumetric Head Avatar Editing from a Single Image

Authors:Chong Bao, Yinda Zhang, Yuan Li, Xiyu Zhang, Bangbang Yang, Hujun Bao, Marc Pollefeys, Guofeng Zhang, Zhaopeng Cui

Recently, we have witnessed the explosive growth of various volumetric representations in modeling animatable head avatars. However, due to the diversity of frameworks, there is no practical method to support high-level applications like 3D head avatar editing across different representations. In this paper, we propose a generic avatar editing approach that can be universally applied to various 3DMM driving volumetric head avatars. To achieve this goal, we design a novel expression-aware modification generative model, which enables lift 2D editing from a single image to a consistent 3D modification field. To ensure the effectiveness of the generative modification process, we develop several techniques, including an expression-dependent modification distillation scheme to draw knowledge from the large-scale head avatar model and 2D facial texture editing tools, implicit latent space guidance to enhance model convergence, and a segmentation-based loss reweight strategy for fine-grained texture inversion. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method delivers high-quality and consistent results across multiple expression and viewpoints. Project page: https://zju3dv.github.io/geneavatar/
PDF Accepted to CVPR 2024. Project page: https://zju3dv.github.io/geneavatar/


Dynamic Pre-training: Towards Efficient and Scalable All-in-One Image Restoration

Authors:Akshay Dudhane, Omkar Thawakar, Syed Waqas Zamir, Salman Khan, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Ming-Hsuan Yang

All-in-one image restoration tackles different types of degradations with a unified model instead of having task-specific, non-generic models for each degradation. The requirement to tackle multiple degradations using the same model can lead to high-complexity designs with fixed configuration that lack the adaptability to more efficient alternatives. We propose DyNet, a dynamic family of networks designed in an encoder-decoder style for all-in-one image restoration tasks. Our DyNet can seamlessly switch between its bulkier and lightweight variants, thereby offering flexibility for efficient model deployment with a single round of training. This seamless switching is enabled by our weights-sharing mechanism, forming the core of our architecture and facilitating the reuse of initialized module weights. Further, to establish robust weights initialization, we introduce a dynamic pre-training strategy that trains variants of the proposed DyNet concurrently, thereby achieving a 50% reduction in GPU hours. To tackle the unavailability of large-scale dataset required in pre-training, we curate a high-quality, high-resolution image dataset named Million-IRD having 2M image samples. We validate our DyNet for image denoising, deraining, and dehazing in all-in-one setting, achieving state-of-the-art results with 31.34% reduction in GFlops and a 56.75% reduction in parameters compared to baseline models. The source codes and trained models are available at https://github.com/akshaydudhane16/DyNet.


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