2023-12-26 更新

Learning Dense Correspondence for NeRF-Based Face Reenactment

Authors:Songlin Yang, Wei Wang, Yushi Lan, Xiangyu Fan, Bo Peng, Lei Yang, Jing Dong

Face reenactment is challenging due to the need to establish dense correspondence between various face representations for motion transfer. Recent studies have utilized Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) as fundamental representation, which further enhanced the performance of multi-view face reenactment in photo-realism and 3D consistency. However, establishing dense correspondence between different face NeRFs is non-trivial, because implicit representations lack ground-truth correspondence annotations like mesh-based 3D parametric models (e.g., 3DMM) with index-aligned vertexes. Although aligning 3DMM space with NeRF-based face representations can realize motion control, it is sub-optimal for their limited face-only modeling and low identity fidelity. Therefore, we are inspired to ask: Can we learn the dense correspondence between different NeRF-based face representations without a 3D parametric model prior? To address this challenge, we propose a novel framework, which adopts tri-planes as fundamental NeRF representation and decomposes face tri-planes into three components: canonical tri-planes, identity deformations, and motion. In terms of motion control, our key contribution is proposing a Plane Dictionary (PlaneDict) module, which efficiently maps the motion conditions to a linear weighted addition of learnable orthogonal plane bases. To the best of our knowledge, our framework is the first method that achieves one-shot multi-view face reenactment without a 3D parametric model prior. Extensive experiments demonstrate that we produce better results in fine-grained motion control and identity preservation than previous methods.
PDF Accepted by Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2024


PNeRFLoc: Visual Localization with Point-based Neural Radiance Fields

Authors:Boming Zhao, Luwei Yang, Mao Mao, Hujun Bao, Zhaopeng Cui

Due to the ability to synthesize high-quality novel views, Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) have been recently exploited to improve visual localization in a known environment. However, the existing methods mostly utilize NeRFs for data augmentation to improve the regression model training, and the performance on novel viewpoints and appearances is still limited due to the lack of geometric constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel visual localization framework, \ie, PNeRFLoc, based on a unified point-based representation. On the one hand, PNeRFLoc supports the initial pose estimation by matching 2D and 3D feature points as traditional structure-based methods; on the other hand, it also enables pose refinement with novel view synthesis using rendering-based optimization. Specifically, we propose a novel feature adaption module to close the gaps between the features for visual localization and neural rendering. To improve the efficacy and efficiency of neural rendering-based optimization, we also develop an efficient rendering-based framework with a warping loss function. Furthermore, several robustness techniques are developed to handle illumination changes and dynamic objects for outdoor scenarios. Experiments demonstrate that PNeRFLoc performs the best on synthetic data when the NeRF model can be well learned and performs on par with the SOTA method on the visual localization benchmark datasets.
PDF Accepted to AAAI 2024


AE-NeRF: Audio Enhanced Neural Radiance Field for Few Shot Talking Head Synthesis

Authors:Dongze Li, Kang Zhao, Wei Wang, Bo Peng, Yingya Zhang, Jing Dong, Tieniu Tan

Audio-driven talking head synthesis is a promising topic with wide applications in digital human, film making and virtual reality. Recent NeRF-based approaches have shown superiority in quality and fidelity compared to previous studies. However, when it comes to few-shot talking head generation, a practical scenario where only few seconds of talking video is available for one identity, two limitations emerge: 1) they either have no base model, which serves as a facial prior for fast convergence, or ignore the importance of audio when building the prior; 2) most of them overlook the degree of correlation between different face regions and audio, e.g., mouth is audio related, while ear is audio independent. In this paper, we present Audio Enhanced Neural Radiance Field (AE-NeRF) to tackle the above issues, which can generate realistic portraits of a new speaker with fewshot dataset. Specifically, we introduce an Audio Aware Aggregation module into the feature fusion stage of the reference scheme, where the weight is determined by the similarity of audio between reference and target image. Then, an Audio-Aligned Face Generation strategy is proposed to model the audio related and audio independent regions respectively, with a dual-NeRF framework. Extensive experiments have shown AE-NeRF surpasses the state-of-the-art on image fidelity, audio-lip synchronization, and generalization ability, even in limited training set or training iterations.
PDF Accepted by AAAI 2024


GauFRe: Gaussian Deformation Fields for Real-time Dynamic Novel View Synthesis

Authors:Yiqing Liang, Numair Khan, Zhengqin Li, Thu Nguyen-Phuoc, Douglas Lanman, James Tompkin, Lei Xiao

We propose a method for dynamic scene reconstruction using deformable 3D Gaussians that is tailored for monocular video. Building upon the efficiency of Gaussian splatting, our approach extends the representation to accommodate dynamic elements via a deformable set of Gaussians residing in a canonical space, and a time-dependent deformation field defined by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). Moreover, under the assumption that most natural scenes have large regions that remain static, we allow the MLP to focus its representational power by additionally including a static Gaussian point cloud. The concatenated dynamic and static point clouds form the input for the Gaussian Splatting rasterizer, enabling real-time rendering. The differentiable pipeline is optimized end-to-end with a self-supervised rendering loss. Our method achieves results that are comparable to state-of-the-art dynamic neural radiance field methods while allowing much faster optimization and rendering. Project website:
PDF 10 pages, 8 figures, 4 tables


Text-Image Conditioned Diffusion for Consistent Text-to-3D Generation

Authors:Yuze He, Yushi Bai, Matthieu Lin, Jenny Sheng, Yubin Hu, Qi Wang, Yu-Hui Wen, Yong-Jin Liu

By lifting the pre-trained 2D diffusion models into Neural Radiance Fields (NeRFs), text-to-3D generation methods have made great progress. Many state-of-the-art approaches usually apply score distillation sampling (SDS) to optimize the NeRF representations, which supervises the NeRF optimization with pre-trained text-conditioned 2D diffusion models such as Imagen. However, the supervision signal provided by such pre-trained diffusion models only depends on text prompts and does not constrain the multi-view consistency. To inject the cross-view consistency into diffusion priors, some recent works finetune the 2D diffusion model with multi-view data, but still lack fine-grained view coherence. To tackle this challenge, we incorporate multi-view image conditions into the supervision signal of NeRF optimization, which explicitly enforces fine-grained view consistency. With such stronger supervision, our proposed text-to-3D method effectively mitigates the generation of floaters (due to excessive densities) and completely empty spaces (due to insufficient densities). Our quantitative evaluations on the T$^3$Bench dataset demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance over existing text-to-3D methods. We will make the code publicly available.


MixRT: Mixed Neural Representations For Real-Time NeRF Rendering

Authors:Chaojian Li, Bichen Wu, Peter Vajda, Yingyan, Lin

Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) has emerged as a leading technique for novel view synthesis, owing to its impressive photorealistic reconstruction and rendering capability. Nevertheless, achieving real-time NeRF rendering in large-scale scenes has presented challenges, often leading to the adoption of either intricate baked mesh representations with a substantial number of triangles or resource-intensive ray marching in baked representations. We challenge these conventions, observing that high-quality geometry, represented by meshes with substantial triangles, is not necessary for achieving photorealistic rendering quality. Consequently, we propose MixRT, a novel NeRF representation that includes a low-quality mesh, a view-dependent displacement map, and a compressed NeRF model. This design effectively harnesses the capabilities of existing graphics hardware, thus enabling real-time NeRF rendering on edge devices. Leveraging a highly-optimized WebGL-based rendering framework, our proposed MixRT attains real-time rendering speeds on edge devices (over 30 FPS at a resolution of 1280 x 720 on a MacBook M1 Pro laptop), better rendering quality (0.2 PSNR higher in indoor scenes of the Unbounded-360 datasets), and a smaller storage size (less than 80% compared to state-of-the-art methods).
PDF Accepted by 3DV’24. Project Page:


Reducing Shape-Radiance Ambiguity in Radiance Fields with a Closed-Form Color Estimation Method

Authors:Qihang Fang, Yafei Song, Keqiang Li, Liefeng Bo

Neural radiance field (NeRF) enables the synthesis of cutting-edge realistic novel view images of a 3D scene. It includes density and color fields to model the shape and radiance of a scene, respectively. Supervised by the photometric loss in an end-to-end training manner, NeRF inherently suffers from the shape-radiance ambiguity problem, i.e., it can perfectly fit training views but does not guarantee decoupling the two fields correctly. To deal with this issue, existing works have incorporated prior knowledge to provide an independent supervision signal for the density field, including total variation loss, sparsity loss, distortion loss, etc. These losses are based on general assumptions about the density field, e.g., it should be smooth, sparse, or compact, which are not adaptive to a specific scene. In this paper, we propose a more adaptive method to reduce the shape-radiance ambiguity. The key is a rendering method that is only based on the density field. Specifically, we first estimate the color field based on the density field and posed images in a closed form. Then NeRF’s rendering process can proceed. We address the problems in estimating the color field, including occlusion and non-uniformly distributed views. Afterward, it is applied to regularize NeRF’s density field. As our regularization is guided by photometric loss, it is more adaptive compared to existing ones. Experimental results show that our method improves the density field of NeRF both qualitatively and quantitatively. Our code is available at
PDF This work has been published in NeurIPS 2023


Deep Learning on 3D Neural Fields

Authors:Pierluigi Zama Ramirez, Luca De Luigi, Daniele Sirocchi, Adriano Cardace, Riccardo Spezialetti, Francesco Ballerini, Samuele Salti, Luigi Di Stefano

In recent years, Neural Fields (NFs) have emerged as an effective tool for encoding diverse continuous signals such as images, videos, audio, and 3D shapes. When applied to 3D data, NFs offer a solution to the fragmentation and limitations associated with prevalent discrete representations. However, given that NFs are essentially neural networks, it remains unclear whether and how they can be seamlessly integrated into deep learning pipelines for solving downstream tasks. This paper addresses this research problem and introduces nf2vec, a framework capable of generating a compact latent representation for an input NF in a single inference pass. We demonstrate that nf2vec effectively embeds 3D objects represented by the input NFs and showcase how the resulting embeddings can be employed in deep learning pipelines to successfully address various tasks, all while processing exclusively NFs. We test this framework on several NFs used to represent 3D surfaces, such as unsigned/signed distance and occupancy fields. Moreover, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with more complex NFs that encompass both geometry and appearance of 3D objects such as neural radiance fields.
PDF Extended version of the paper “Deep Learning on Implicit Neural Representations of Shapes” that was presented at ICLR 2023. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2302.05438


UniSDF: Unifying Neural Representations for High-Fidelity 3D Reconstruction of Complex Scenes with Reflections

Authors:Fangjinhua Wang, Marie-Julie Rakotosaona, Michael Niemeyer, Richard Szeliski, Marc Pollefeys, Federico Tombari

Neural 3D scene representations have shown great potential for 3D reconstruction from 2D images. However, reconstructing real-world captures of complex scenes still remains a challenge. Existing generic 3D reconstruction methods often struggle to represent fine geometric details and do not adequately model reflective surfaces of large-scale scenes. Techniques that explicitly focus on reflective surfaces can model complex and detailed reflections by exploiting better reflection parameterizations. However, we observe that these methods are often not robust in real unbounded scenarios where non-reflective as well as reflective components are present. In this work, we propose UniSDF, a general purpose 3D reconstruction method that can reconstruct large complex scenes with reflections. We investigate both view-based as well as reflection-based color prediction parameterization techniques and find that explicitly blending these representations in 3D space enables reconstruction of surfaces that are more geometrically accurate, especially for reflective surfaces. We further combine this representation with a multi-resolution grid backbone that is trained in a coarse-to-fine manner, enabling faster reconstructions than prior methods. Extensive experiments on object-level datasets DTU, Shiny Blender as well as unbounded datasets Mip-NeRF 360 and Ref-NeRF real demonstrate that our method is able to robustly reconstruct complex large-scale scenes with fine details and reflective surfaces. Please see our project page at
PDF Project page:


Compact 3D Scene Representation via Self-Organizing Gaussian Grids

Authors:Wieland Morgenstern, Florian Barthel, Anna Hilsmann, Peter Eisert

3D Gaussian Splatting has recently emerged as a highly promising technique for modeling of static 3D scenes. In contrast to Neural Radiance Fields, it utilizes efficient rasterization allowing for very fast rendering at high-quality. However, the storage size is significantly higher, which hinders practical deployment, e.g.~on resource constrained devices. In this paper, we introduce a compact scene representation organizing the parameters of 3D Gaussian Splatting (3DGS) into a 2D grid with local homogeneity, ensuring a drastic reduction in storage requirements without compromising visual quality during rendering. Central to our idea is the explicit exploitation of perceptual redundancies present in natural scenes. In essence, the inherent nature of a scene allows for numerous permutations of Gaussian parameters to equivalently represent it. To this end, we propose a novel highly parallel algorithm that regularly arranges the high-dimensional Gaussian parameters into a 2D grid while preserving their neighborhood structure. During training, we further enforce local smoothness between the sorted parameters in the grid. The uncompressed Gaussians use the same structure as 3DGS, ensuring a seamless integration with established renderers. Our method achieves a reduction factor of 8x to 26x in size for complex scenes with no increase in training time, marking a substantial leap forward in the domain of 3D scene distribution and consumption. Additional information can be found on our project page:


ShowRoom3D: Text to High-Quality 3D Room Generation Using 3D Priors

Authors:Weijia Mao, Yan-Pei Cao, Jia-Wei Liu, Zhongcong Xu, Mike Zheng Shou

We introduce ShowRoom3D, a three-stage approach for generating high-quality 3D room-scale scenes from texts. Previous methods using 2D diffusion priors to optimize neural radiance fields for generating room-scale scenes have shown unsatisfactory quality. This is primarily attributed to the limitations of 2D priors lacking 3D awareness and constraints in the training methodology. In this paper, we utilize a 3D diffusion prior, MVDiffusion, to optimize the 3D room-scale scene. Our contributions are in two aspects. Firstly, we propose a progressive view selection process to optimize NeRF. This involves dividing the training process into three stages, gradually expanding the camera sampling scope. Secondly, we propose the pose transformation method in the second stage. It will ensure MVDiffusion provide the accurate view guidance. As a result, ShowRoom3D enables the generation of rooms with improved structural integrity, enhanced clarity from any view, reduced content repetition, and higher consistency across different perspectives. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method, significantly outperforms state-of-the-art approaches by a large margin in terms of user study.


Ternary-type Opacity and Hybrid Odometry for RGB-only NeRF-SLAM

Authors:Junru Lin, Asen Nachkov, Songyou Peng, Luc Van Gool, Danda Pani Paudel

The opacity of rigid 3D scenes with opaque surfaces is considered to be of a binary type. However, we observed that this property is not followed by the existing RGB-only NeRF-SLAM. Therefore, we are motivated to introduce this prior into the RGB-only NeRF-SLAM pipeline. Unfortunately, the optimization through the volumetric rendering function does not facilitate easy integration of the desired prior. Instead, we observed that the opacity of ternary-type (TT) is well supported. In this work, we study why ternary-type opacity is well-suited and desired for the task at hand. In particular, we provide theoretical insights into the process of jointly optimizing radiance and opacity through the volumetric rendering process. Through exhaustive experiments on benchmark datasets, we validate our claim and provide insights into the optimization process, which we believe will unleash the potential of RGB-only NeRF-SLAM. To foster this line of research, we also propose a simple yet novel visual odometry scheme that uses a hybrid combination of volumetric and warping-based image renderings. More specifically, the proposed hybrid odometry (HO) additionally uses image warping-based coarse odometry, leading up to an order of magnitude final speed-up. Furthermore, we show that the proposed TT and HO well complement each other, offering state-of-the-art results on benchmark datasets in terms of both speed and accuracy.


NeRF-VO: Real-Time Sparse Visual Odometry with Neural Radiance Fields

Authors:Jens Naumann, Binbin Xu, Stefan Leutenegger, Xingxing Zuo

We introduce a novel monocular visual odometry (VO) system, NeRF-VO, that integrates learning-based sparse visual odometry for low-latency camera tracking and a neural radiance scene representation for sophisticated dense reconstruction and novel view synthesis. Our system initializes camera poses using sparse visual odometry and obtains view-dependent dense geometry priors from a monocular depth prediction network. We harmonize the scale of poses and dense geometry, treating them as supervisory cues to train a neural implicit scene representation. NeRF-VO demonstrates exceptional performance in both photometric and geometric fidelity of the scene representation by jointly optimizing a sliding window of keyframed poses and the underlying dense geometry, which is accomplished through training the radiance field with volume rendering. We surpass state-of-the-art methods in pose estimation accuracy, novel view synthesis fidelity, and dense reconstruction quality across a variety of synthetic and real-world datasets, while achieving a higher camera tracking frequency and consuming less GPU memory.
PDF 10 tables, 4 figures


DyBluRF: Dynamic Deblurring Neural Radiance Fields for Blurry Monocular Video

Authors:Minh-Quan Viet Bui, Jongmin Park, Jihyong Oh, Munchurl Kim

Video view synthesis, allowing for the creation of visually appealing frames from arbitrary viewpoints and times, offers immersive viewing experiences. Neural radiance fields, particularly NeRF, initially developed for static scenes, have spurred the creation of various methods for video view synthesis. However, the challenge for video view synthesis arises from motion blur, a consequence of object or camera movement during exposure, which hinders the precise synthesis of sharp spatio-temporal views. In response, we propose a novel dynamic deblurring NeRF framework for blurry monocular video, called DyBluRF, consisting of an Interleave Ray Refinement (IRR) stage and a Motion Decomposition-based Deblurring (MDD) stage. Our DyBluRF is the first that addresses and handles the novel view synthesis for blurry monocular video. The IRR stage jointly reconstructs dynamic 3D scenes and refines the inaccurate camera pose information to combat imprecise pose information extracted from the given blurry frames. The MDD stage is a novel incremental latent sharp-rays prediction (ILSP) approach for the blurry monocular video frames by decomposing the latent sharp rays into global camera motion and local object motion components. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our DyBluRF outperforms qualitatively and quantitatively the very recent state-of-the-art methods. Our project page including source codes and pretrained model are publicly available at
PDF The first three authors contributed equally to this work. Please visit our project page at


SyncDreamer for 3D Reconstruction of Endangered Animal Species with NeRF and NeuS

Authors:Ahmet Haydar Ornek, Deniz Sen, Esmanur Civil

The main aim of this study is to demonstrate how innovative view synthesis and 3D reconstruction techniques can be used to create models of endangered species using monocular RGB images. To achieve this, we employed SyncDreamer to produce unique perspectives and NeuS and NeRF to reconstruct 3D representations. We chose four different animals, including the oriental stork, frog, dragonfly, and tiger, as our subjects for this study. Our results show that the combination of SyncDreamer, NeRF, and NeuS techniques can successfully create 3D models of endangered animals. However, we also observed that NeuS produced blurry images, while NeRF generated sharper but noisier images. This study highlights the potential of modeling endangered animals and offers a new direction for future research in this field. By showcasing the effectiveness of these advanced techniques, we hope to encourage further exploration and development of techniques for preserving and studying endangered species.
PDF 8 figures


Carve3D: Improving Multi-view Reconstruction Consistency for Diffusion Models with RL Finetuning

Authors:Desai Xie, Jiahao Li, Hao Tan, Xin Sun, Zhixin Shu, Yi Zhou, Sai Bi, Sören Pirk, Arie E. Kaufman

Recent advancements in the text-to-3D task leverage finetuned text-to-image diffusion models to generate multi-view images, followed by NeRF reconstruction. Yet, existing supervised finetuned (SFT) diffusion models still suffer from multi-view inconsistency and the resulting NeRF artifacts. Although training longer with SFT improves consistency, it also causes distribution shift, which reduces diversity and realistic details. We argue that the SFT of multi-view diffusion models resembles the instruction finetuning stage of the LLM alignment pipeline and can benefit from RL finetuning (RLFT) methods. Essentially, RLFT methods optimize models beyond their SFT data distribution by using their own outputs, effectively mitigating distribution shift. To this end, we introduce Carve3D, a RLFT method coupled with the Multi-view Reconstruction Consistency (MRC) metric, to improve the consistency of multi-view diffusion models. To compute MRC on a set of multi-view images, we compare them with their corresponding renderings of the reconstructed NeRF at the same viewpoints. We validate the robustness of MRC with extensive experiments conducted under controlled inconsistency levels. We enhance the base RLFT algorithm to stabilize the training process, reduce distribution shift, and identify scaling laws. Through qualitative and quantitative experiments, along with a user study, we demonstrate Carve3D’s improved multi-view consistency, the resulting superior NeRF reconstruction quality, and minimal distribution shift compared to longer SFT. Project webpage:
PDF Project webpage:


Neural Point Cloud Diffusion for Disentangled 3D Shape and Appearance Generation

Authors:Philipp Schröppel, Christopher Wewer, Jan Eric Lenssen, Eddy Ilg, Thomas Brox

Controllable generation of 3D assets is important for many practical applications like content creation in movies, games and engineering, as well as in AR/VR. Recently, diffusion models have shown remarkable results in generation quality of 3D objects. However, none of the existing models enable disentangled generation to control the shape and appearance separately. For the first time, we present a suitable representation for 3D diffusion models to enable such disentanglement by introducing a hybrid point cloud and neural radiance field approach. We model a diffusion process over point positions jointly with a high-dimensional feature space for a local density and radiance decoder. While the point positions represent the coarse shape of the object, the point features allow modeling the geometry and appearance details. This disentanglement enables us to sample both independently and therefore to control both separately. Our approach sets a new state of the art in generation compared to previous disentanglement-capable methods by reduced FID scores of 30-90% and is on-par with other non disentanglement-capable state-of-the art methods.


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