Authors:Philip Müller, Georgios Kaissis, Daniel Rueckert
Image-text contrastive learning has proven effective for pretraining medical image models. When targeting localized downstream tasks like semantic segmentation or object detection, additional local contrastive losses that align image regions with sentences have shown promising results. We study how local contrastive losses are related to global (per-sample) contrastive losses and which effects they have on localized medical downstream tasks. Based on a theoretical comparison, we propose to remove some components of local losses and replace others by a novel distribution prior which enforces uniformity of representations within each sample. We empirically study this approach on chest X-ray tasks and find it to be very effective, outperforming methods without local losses on 12 of 18 tasks.
PDF NeurIPS 2022 Workshop: Self-Supervised Learning - Theory and Practice
Authors:Hao Tang, Xiaojuan Qi, Guolei Sun, Dan Xu, Nicu Sebe, Radu Timofte, Luc Van Gool
We propose a novel edge guided generative adversarial network with contrastive learning (ECGAN) for the challenging semantic image synthesis task. Although considerable improvement has been achieved, the quality of synthesized images is far from satisfactory due to three largely unresolved challenges. 1) The semantic labels do not provide detailed structural information, making it difficult to synthesize local details and structures. 2) The widely adopted CNN operations such as convolution, down-sampling, and normalization usually cause spatial resolution loss and thus cannot fully preserve the original semantic information, leading to semantically inconsistent results (e.g., missing small objects). 3) Existing semantic image synthesis methods focus on modeling
local' semantic information from a single input semantic layout. However, they ignoreglobal’ semantic information of multiple input semantic layouts, i.e., semantic cross-relations between pixels across different input layouts. To tackle 1), we propose to use edge as an intermediate representation which is further adopted to guide image generation via a proposed attention guided edge transfer module. Edge information is produced by a convolutional generator and introduces detailed structure information. To tackle 2), we design an effective module to selectively highlight class-dependent feature maps according to the original semantic layout to preserve the semantic information. To tackle 3), inspired by current methods in contrastive learning, we propose a novel contrastive learning method, which aims to enforce pixel embeddings belonging to the same semantic class to generate more similar image content than those from different classes. By doing so, it can capture more semantic relations by explicitly exploring the structures of labeled pixels from multiple input semantic layouts.