2024-03-31 更新

ConDiSR: Contrastive Disentanglement and Style Regularization for Single Domain Generalization

Authors:Aleksandr Matsun, Numan Saeed, Fadillah Adamsyah Maani, Mohammad Yaqub

Medical data often exhibits distribution shifts, which cause test-time performance degradation for deep learning models trained using standard supervised learning pipelines. This challenge is addressed in the field of Domain Generalization (DG) with the sub-field of Single Domain Generalization (SDG) being specifically interesting due to the privacy- or logistics-related issues often associated with medical data. Existing disentanglement-based SDG methods heavily rely on structural information embedded in segmentation masks, however classification labels do not provide such dense information. This work introduces a novel SDG method aimed at medical image classification that leverages channel-wise contrastive disentanglement. It is further enhanced with reconstruction-based style regularization to ensure extraction of distinct style and structure feature representations. We evaluate our method on the complex task of multicenter histopathology image classification, comparing it against state-of-the-art (SOTA) SDG baselines. Results demonstrate that our method surpasses the SOTA by a margin of 1% in average accuracy while also showing more stable performance. This study highlights the importance and challenges of exploring SDG frameworks in the context of the classification task. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/BioMedIA-MBZUAI/ConDiSR


ViTCN: Vision Transformer Contrastive Network For Reasoning

Authors:Bo Song, Yuanhao Xu, Yichao Wu

Machine learning models have achieved significant milestones in various domains, for example, computer vision models have an exceptional result in object recognition, and in natural language processing, where Large Language Models (LLM) like GPT can start a conversation with human-like proficiency. However, abstract reasoning remains a challenge for these models, Can AI really thinking like a human? still be a question yet to be answered. Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM) is a metric designed to assess human reasoning capabilities. It presents a series of eight images as a problem set, where the participant should try to discover the underlying rules among these images and select the most appropriate image from eight possible options that best completes the sequence. This task always be used to test human reasoning abilities and IQ. Zhang et al proposed a dataset called RAVEN which can be used to test Machine Learning model abstract reasoning ability. In this paper, we purposed Vision Transformer Contrastive Network which build on previous work with the Contrastive Perceptual Inference network (CoPiNet), which set a new benchmark for permutationinvariant models Raven Progressive Matrices by incorporating contrast effects from psychology, cognition, and education, and extends this foundation by leveraging the cutting-edge Vision Transformer architecture. This integration aims to further refine the machine ability to process and reason about spatial-temporal information from pixel-level inputs and global wise features on RAVEN dataset.
PDF 5 pages, 2 figures , in proceeding of 5th International Seminar on Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Information Technology


Contrastive Pre-Training with Multi-View Fusion for No-Reference Point Cloud Quality Assessment

Authors:Ziyu Shan, Yujie Zhang, Qi Yang, Haichen Yang, Yiling Xu, Jenq-Neng Hwang, Xiaozhong Xu, Shan Liu

No-reference point cloud quality assessment (NR-PCQA) aims to automatically evaluate the perceptual quality of distorted point clouds without available reference, which have achieved tremendous improvements due to the utilization of deep neural networks. However, learning-based NR-PCQA methods suffer from the scarcity of labeled data and usually perform suboptimally in terms of generalization. To solve the problem, we propose a novel contrastive pre-training framework tailored for PCQA (CoPA), which enables the pre-trained model to learn quality-aware representations from unlabeled data. To obtain anchors in the representation space, we project point clouds with different distortions into images and randomly mix their local patches to form mixed images with multiple distortions. Utilizing the generated anchors, we constrain the pre-training process via a quality-aware contrastive loss following the philosophy that perceptual quality is closely related to both content and distortion. Furthermore, in the model fine-tuning stage, we propose a semantic-guided multi-view fusion module to effectively integrate the features of projected images from multiple perspectives. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art PCQA methods on popular benchmarks. Further investigations demonstrate that CoPA can also benefit existing learning-based PCQA models.


Region-aware Distribution Contrast: A Novel Approach to Multi-Task Partially Supervised Learning

Authors:Meixuan Li, Tianyu Li, Guoqing Wang, Peng Wang, Yang Yang, Heng Tao Shen

In this study, we address the intricate challenge of multi-task dense prediction, encompassing tasks such as semantic segmentation, depth estimation, and surface normal estimation, particularly when dealing with partially annotated data (MTPSL). The complexity arises from the absence of complete task labels for each training image. Given the inter-related nature of these pixel-wise dense tasks, our focus is on mining and capturing cross-task relationships. Existing solutions typically rely on learning global image representations for global cross-task image matching, imposing constraints that, unfortunately, sacrifice the finer structures within the images. Attempting local matching as a remedy faces hurdles due to the lack of precise region supervision, making local alignment a challenging endeavor. The introduction of Segment Anything Model (SAM) sheds light on addressing local alignment challenges by providing free and high-quality solutions for region detection. Leveraging SAM-detected regions, the subsequent challenge lies in aligning the representations within these regions. Diverging from conventional methods that directly learn a monolithic image representation, our proposal involves modeling region-wise representations using Gaussian Distributions. Aligning these distributions between corresponding regions from different tasks imparts higher flexibility and capacity to capture intra-region structures, accommodating a broader range of tasks. This innovative approach significantly enhances our ability to effectively capture cross-task relationships, resulting in improved overall performance in partially supervised multi-task dense prediction scenarios. Extensive experiments conducted on two widely used benchmarks underscore the superior effectiveness of our proposed method, showcasing state-of-the-art performance even when compared to fully supervised methods.


Authors:Xiaoyu Wu, Yang Hua, Chumeng Liang, Jiaru Zhang, Hao Wang, Tao Song, Haibing Guan

Diffusion Models (DMs) have evolved into advanced image generation tools, especially for few-shot generation where a pretrained model is fine-tuned on a small set of images to capture a specific style or object. Despite their success, concerns exist about potential copyright violations stemming from the use of unauthorized data in this process. In response, we present Contrasting Gradient Inversion for Diffusion Models (CGI-DM), a novel method featuring vivid visual representations for digital copyright authentication. Our approach involves removing partial information of an image and recovering missing details by exploiting conceptual differences between the pretrained and fine-tuned models. We formulate the differences as KL divergence between latent variables of the two models when given the same input image, which can be maximized through Monte Carlo sampling and Projected Gradient Descent (PGD). The similarity between original and recovered images serves as a strong indicator of potential infringements. Extensive experiments on the WikiArt and Dreambooth datasets demonstrate the high accuracy of CGI-DM in digital copyright authentication, surpassing alternative validation techniques. Code implementation is available at https://github.com/Nicholas0228/Revelio.
PDF Accepted by CVPR 2024


Data-Efficient Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining: Prioritizing Data Quality over Quantity

Authors:Siddharth Joshi, Arnav Jain, Ali Payani, Baharan Mirzasoleiman

Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) on large-scale image-caption datasets learns representations that can achieve remarkable zero-shot generalization. However, such models require a massive amount of pre-training data. Improving the quality of the pre-training data has been shown to be much more effective in improving CLIP’s performance than increasing its volume. Nevertheless, finding small subsets of training data that provably generalize the best has remained an open question. In this work, we propose the first theoretically rigorous data selection method for CLIP. We show that subsets that closely preserve the cross-covariance of the images and captions of the full data provably achieve a superior generalization performance. Our extensive experiments on ConceptualCaptions3M and ConceptualCaptions12M demonstrate that subsets found by \method\ achieve over 2.7x and 1.4x the accuracy of the next best baseline on ImageNet and its shifted versions. Moreover, we show that our subsets obtain 1.5x the average accuracy across 11 downstream datasets, of the next best baseline. The code is available at: https://github.com/BigML-CS-UCLA/clipcov-data-efficient-clip.
PDF AISTATS 2024, Code: https://github.com/BigML-CS-UCLA/clipcov-data-efficient-clip


Do Generated Data Always Help Contrastive Learning?

Authors:Yifei Wang, Jizhe Zhang, Yisen Wang

Contrastive Learning (CL) has emerged as one of the most successful paradigms for unsupervised visual representation learning, yet it often depends on intensive manual data augmentations. With the rise of generative models, especially diffusion models, the ability to generate realistic images close to the real data distribution has been well recognized. These generated high-equality images have been successfully applied to enhance contrastive representation learning, a technique termed ``data inflation’’. However, we find that the generated data (even from a good diffusion model like DDPM) may sometimes even harm contrastive learning. We investigate the causes behind this failure from the perspective of both data inflation and data augmentation. For the first time, we reveal the complementary roles that stronger data inflation should be accompanied by weaker augmentations, and vice versa. We also provide rigorous theoretical explanations for these phenomena via deriving its generalization bounds under data inflation. Drawing from these insights, we propose Adaptive Inflation (AdaInf), a purely data-centric strategy without introducing any extra computation cost. On benchmark datasets, AdaInf can bring significant improvements for various contrastive learning methods. Notably, without using external data, AdaInf obtains 94.70% linear accuracy on CIFAR-10 with SimCLR, setting a new record that surpasses many sophisticated methods. Code is available at https://github.com/PKU-ML/adainf.
PDF 19 pages. Accepted by ICLR 2024


N-Modal Contrastive Losses with Applications to Social Media Data in Trimodal Space

Authors:William Theisen, Walter Scheirer

The social media landscape of conflict dynamics has grown increasingly multi-modal. Recent advancements in model architectures such as CLIP have enabled researchers to begin studying the interplay between the modalities of text and images in a shared latent space. However, CLIP models fail to handle situations on social media when modalities present in a post expand above two. Social media dynamics often require understanding the interplay between not only text and images, but video as well. In this paper we explore an extension of the contrastive loss function to allow for any number of modalities, and demonstrate its usefulness in trimodal spaces on social media. By extending CLIP into three dimensions we can further aide understanding social media landscapes where all three modalities are present (an increasingly common situation). We use a newly collected public data set of Telegram posts containing all three modalities to train, and then demonstrate the usefulness of, a trimodal model in two OSINT scenarios: classifying a social media artifact post as either pro-Russian or pro-Ukrainian and identifying which account a given artifact originated from. While trimodal CLIP models have been explored before (though not on social media data), we also display a novel quadmodal CLIP model. This model can learn the interplay between text, image, video, and audio. We demonstrate new state-of-the-art baseline results on retrieval for quadmodel models moving forward.


Few-shot Oriented Object Detection with Memorable Contrastive Learning in Remote Sensing Images

Authors:Jiawei Zhou, Wuzhou Li, Yi Cao, Hongtao Cai, Xiang Li

Few-shot object detection (FSOD) has garnered significant research attention in the field of remote sensing due to its ability to reduce the dependency on large amounts of annotated data. However, two challenges persist in this area: (1) axis-aligned proposals, which can result in misalignment for arbitrarily oriented objects, and (2) the scarcity of annotated data still limits the performance for unseen object categories. To address these issues, we propose a novel FSOD method for remote sensing images called Few-shot Oriented object detection with Memorable Contrastive learning (FOMC). Specifically, we employ oriented bounding boxes instead of traditional horizontal bounding boxes to learn a better feature representation for arbitrary-oriented aerial objects, leading to enhanced detection performance. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to address oriented object detection in the few-shot setting for remote sensing images. To address the challenging issue of object misclassification, we introduce a supervised contrastive learning module with a dynamically updated memory bank. This module enables the use of large batches of negative samples and enhances the model’s capability to learn discriminative features for unseen classes. We conduct comprehensive experiments on the DOTA and HRSC2016 datasets, and our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on the few-shot oriented object detection task. Code and pretrained models will be released.
PDF 13 pages, 8 tables, 10 figures


CMViM: Contrastive Masked Vim Autoencoder for 3D Multi-modal Representation Learning for AD classification

Authors:Guangqian Yang, Kangrui Du, Zhihan Yang, Ye Du, Yongping Zheng, Shujun Wang

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative condition leading to cognitive and functional deterioration. Given the lack of a cure, prompt and precise AD diagnosis is vital, a complex process dependent on multiple factors and multi-modal data. While successful efforts have been made to integrate multi-modal representation learning into medical datasets, scant attention has been given to 3D medical images. In this paper, we propose Contrastive Masked Vim Autoencoder (CMViM), the first efficient representation learning method tailored for 3D multi-modal data. Our proposed framework is built on a masked Vim autoencoder to learn a unified multi-modal representation and long-dependencies contained in 3D medical images. We also introduce an intra-modal contrastive learning module to enhance the capability of the multi-modal Vim encoder for modeling the discriminative features in the same modality, and an inter-modal contrastive learning module to alleviate misaligned representation among modalities. Our framework consists of two main steps: 1) incorporate the Vision Mamba (Vim) into the mask autoencoder to reconstruct 3D masked multi-modal data efficiently. 2) align the multi-modal representations with contrastive learning mechanisms from both intra-modal and inter-modal aspects. Our framework is pre-trained and validated ADNI2 dataset and validated on the downstream task for AD classification. The proposed CMViM yields 2.7\% AUC performance improvement compared with other state-of-the-art methods.
PDF 11 pages, 1 figure


PoCo: A Self-Supervised Approach via Polar Transformation Based Progressive Contrastive Learning for Ophthalmic Disease Diagnosis

Authors:Jinhong Wang, Tingting Chen, Jintai Chen, Yixuan Wu, Yuyang Xu, Danny Chen, Haochao Ying, Jian Wu

Automatic ophthalmic disease diagnosis on fundus images is important in clinical practice. However, due to complex fundus textures and limited annotated data, developing an effective automatic method for this problem is still challenging. In this paper, we present a self-supervised method via polar transformation based progressive contrastive learning, called PoCo, for ophthalmic disease diagnosis. Specifically, we novelly inject the polar transformation into contrastive learning to 1) promote contrastive learning pre-training to be faster and more stable and 2) naturally capture task-free and rotation-related textures, which provides insights into disease recognition on fundus images. Beneficially, simple normal translation-invariant convolution on transformed images can equivalently replace the complex rotation-invariant and sector convolution on raw images. After that, we develop a progressive contrastive learning method to efficiently utilize large unannotated images and a novel progressive hard negative sampling scheme to gradually reduce the negative sample number for efficient training and performance enhancement. Extensive experiments on three public ophthalmic disease datasets show that our PoCo achieves state-of-the-art performance with good generalization ability, validating that our method can reduce annotation efforts and provide reliable diagnosis. Codes are available at \url{https://github.com/wjh892521292/PoCo}.


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