Human reconstruction

2024-03-31 更新

Deep Learning for Human Parsing: A Survey

Authors:Xiaomei Zhang, Xiangyu Zhu, Ming Tang, Zhen Lei

Human parsing is a key topic in image processing with many applications, such as surveillance analysis, human-robot interaction, person search, and clothing category classification, among many others. Recently, due to the success of deep learning in computer vision, there are a number of works aimed at developing human parsing algorithms using deep learning models. As methods have been proposed, a comprehensive survey of this topic is of great importance. In this survey, we provide an analysis of state-of-the-art human parsing methods, covering a broad spectrum of pioneering works for semantic human parsing. We introduce five insightful categories: (1) structure-driven architectures exploit the relationship of different human parts and the inherent hierarchical structure of a human body, (2) graph-based networks capture the global information to achieve an efficient and complete human body analysis, (3) context-aware networks explore useful contexts across all pixel to characterize a pixel of the corresponding class, (4) LSTM-based methods can combine short-distance and long-distance spatial dependencies to better exploit abundant local and global contexts, and (5) combined auxiliary information approaches use related tasks or supervision to improve network performance. We also discuss the advantages/disadvantages of the methods in each category and the relationships between methods in different categories, examine the most widely used datasets, report performances, and discuss promising future research directions in this area.


D-IF: Uncertainty-aware Human Digitization via Implicit Distribution Field

Authors:Xueting Yang, Yihao Luo, Yuliang Xiu, Wei Wang, Hao Xu, Zhaoxin Fan

Realistic virtual humans play a crucial role in numerous industries, such as metaverse, intelligent healthcare, and self-driving simulation. But creating them on a large scale with high levels of realism remains a challenge. The utilization of deep implicit function sparks a new era of image-based 3D clothed human reconstruction, enabling pixel-aligned shape recovery with fine details. Subsequently, the vast majority of works locate the surface by regressing the deterministic implicit value for each point. However, should all points be treated equally regardless of their proximity to the surface? In this paper, we propose replacing the implicit value with an adaptive uncertainty distribution, to differentiate between points based on their distance to the surface. This simple ``value to distribution’’ transition yields significant improvements on nearly all the baselines. Furthermore, qualitative results demonstrate that the models trained using our uncertainty distribution loss, can capture more intricate wrinkles, and realistic limbs. Code and models are available for research purposes at


ReFit: Recurrent Fitting Network for 3D Human Recovery

Authors:Yufu Wang, Kostas Daniilidis

We present Recurrent Fitting (ReFit), a neural network architecture for single-image, parametric 3D human reconstruction. ReFit learns a feedback-update loop that mirrors the strategy of solving an inverse problem through optimization. At each iterative step, it reprojects keypoints from the human model to feature maps to query feedback, and uses a recurrent-based updater to adjust the model to fit the image better. Because ReFit encodes strong knowledge of the inverse problem, it is faster to train than previous regression models. At the same time, ReFit improves state-of-the-art performance on standard benchmarks. Moreover, ReFit applies to other optimization settings, such as multi-view fitting and single-view shape fitting. Project website:


Human as Points: Explicit Point-based 3D Human Reconstruction from Single-view RGB Images

Authors:Yingzhi Tang, Qijian Zhang, Junhui Hou, Yebin Liu

The latest trends in the research field of single-view human reconstruction devote to learning deep implicit functions constrained by explicit body shape priors. Despite the remarkable performance improvements compared with traditional processing pipelines, existing learning approaches still show different aspects of limitations in terms of flexibility, generalizability, robustness, and/or representation capability. To comprehensively address the above issues, in this paper, we investigate an explicit point-based human reconstruction framework called HaP, which adopts point clouds as the intermediate representation of the target geometric structure. Technically, our approach is featured by fully-explicit point cloud estimation, manipulation, generation, and refinement in the 3D geometric space, instead of an implicit learning process that can be ambiguous and less controllable. The overall workflow is carefully organized with dedicated designs of the corresponding specialized learning components as well as processing procedures. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our framework achieves quantitative performance improvements of 20% to 40% over current state-of-the-art methods, and better qualitative results. Our promising results may indicate a paradigm rollback to the fully-explicit and geometry-centric algorithm design, which enables to exploit various powerful point cloud modeling architectures and processing techniques. We will make our code and data publicly available at


HumanRecon: Neural Reconstruction of Dynamic Human Using Geometric Cues and Physical Priors

Authors:Junhui Yin, Wei Yin, Hao Chen, Xuqian Ren, Zhanyu Ma, Jun Guo, Yifan Liu

Recent methods for dynamic human reconstruction have attained promising reconstruction results. Most of these methods rely only on RGB color supervision without considering explicit geometric constraints. This leads to existing human reconstruction techniques being more prone to overfitting to color and causes geometrically inherent ambiguities, especially in the sparse multi-view setup. Motivated by recent advances in the field of monocular geometry prediction, we consider the geometric constraints of estimated depth and normals in the learning of neural implicit representation for dynamic human reconstruction. As a geometric regularization, this provides reliable yet explicit supervision information, and improves reconstruction quality. We also exploit several beneficial physical priors, such as adding noise into view direction and maximizing the density on the human surface. These priors ensure the color rendered along rays to be robust to view direction and reduce the inherent ambiguities of density estimated along rays. Experimental results demonstrate that depth and normal cues, predicted by human-specific monocular estimators, can provide effective supervision signals and render more accurate images. Finally, we also show that the proposed physical priors significantly reduce overfitting and improve the overall quality of novel view synthesis. Our code is available at:~\href{}{}.


SIFU: Side-view Conditioned Implicit Function for Real-world Usable Clothed Human Reconstruction

Authors:Zechuan Zhang, Zongxin Yang, Yi Yang

Creating high-quality 3D models of clothed humans from single images for real-world applications is crucial. Despite recent advancements, accurately reconstructing humans in complex poses or with loose clothing from in-the-wild images, along with predicting textures for unseen areas, remains a significant challenge. A key limitation of previous methods is their insufficient prior guidance in transitioning from 2D to 3D and in texture prediction. In response, we introduce SIFU (Side-view Conditioned Implicit Function for Real-world Usable Clothed Human Reconstruction), a novel approach combining a Side-view Decoupling Transformer with a 3D Consistent Texture Refinement pipeline.SIFU employs a cross-attention mechanism within the transformer, using SMPL-X normals as queries to effectively decouple side-view features in the process of mapping 2D features to 3D. This method not only improves the precision of the 3D models but also their robustness, especially when SMPL-X estimates are not perfect. Our texture refinement process leverages text-to-image diffusion-based prior to generate realistic and consistent textures for invisible views. Through extensive experiments, SIFU surpasses SOTA methods in both geometry and texture reconstruction, showcasing enhanced robustness in complex scenarios and achieving an unprecedented Chamfer and P2S measurement. Our approach extends to practical applications such as 3D printing and scene building, demonstrating its broad utility in real-world scenarios. Project page .
PDF Project page ;


Human101: Training 100+FPS Human Gaussians in 100s from 1 View

Authors:Mingwei Li, Jiachen Tao, Zongxin Yang, Yi Yang

Reconstructing the human body from single-view videos plays a pivotal role in the virtual reality domain. One prevalent application scenario necessitates the rapid reconstruction of high-fidelity 3D digital humans while simultaneously ensuring real-time rendering and interaction. Existing methods often struggle to fulfill both requirements. In this paper, we introduce Human101, a novel framework adept at producing high-fidelity dynamic 3D human reconstructions from 1-view videos by training 3D Gaussians in 100 seconds and rendering in 100+ FPS. Our method leverages the strengths of 3D Gaussian Splatting, which provides an explicit and efficient representation of 3D humans. Standing apart from prior NeRF-based pipelines, Human101 ingeniously applies a Human-centric Forward Gaussian Animation method to deform the parameters of 3D Gaussians, thereby enhancing rendering speed (i.e., rendering 1024-resolution images at an impressive 60+ FPS and rendering 512-resolution images at 100+ FPS). Experimental results indicate that our approach substantially eclipses current methods, clocking up to a 10 times surge in frames per second and delivering comparable or superior rendering quality. Code and demos will be released at
PDF Website:


HISR: Hybrid Implicit Surface Representation for Photorealistic 3D Human Reconstruction

Authors:Angtian Wang, Yuanlu Xu, Nikolaos Sarafianos, Robert Maier, Edmond Boyer, Alan Yuille, Tony Tung

Neural reconstruction and rendering strategies have demonstrated state-of-the-art performances due, in part, to their ability to preserve high level shape details. Existing approaches, however, either represent objects as implicit surface functions or neural volumes and still struggle to recover shapes with heterogeneous materials, in particular human skin, hair or clothes. To this aim, we present a new hybrid implicit surface representation to model human shapes. This representation is composed of two surface layers that represent opaque and translucent regions on the clothed human body. We segment different regions automatically using visual cues and learn to reconstruct two signed distance functions (SDFs). We perform surface-based rendering on opaque regions (e.g., body, face, clothes) to preserve high-fidelity surface normals and volume rendering on translucent regions (e.g., hair). Experiments demonstrate that our approach obtains state-of-the-art results on 3D human reconstructions, and also shows competitive performances on other objects.
PDF Accepted by AAAI 2024 main track


RHOBIN Challenge: Reconstruction of Human Object Interaction

Authors:Xianghui Xie, Xi Wang, Nikos Athanasiou, Bharat Lal Bhatnagar, Chun-Hao P. Huang, Kaichun Mo, Hao Chen, Xia Jia, Zerui Zhang, Liangxian Cui, Xiao Lin, Bingqiao Qian, Jie Xiao, Wenfei Yang, Hyeongjin Nam, Daniel Sungho Jung, Kihoon Kim, Kyoung Mu Lee, Otmar Hilliges, Gerard Pons-Moll

Modeling the interaction between humans and objects has been an emerging research direction in recent years. Capturing human-object interaction is however a very challenging task due to heavy occlusion and complex dynamics, which requires understanding not only 3D human pose, and object pose but also the interaction between them. Reconstruction of 3D humans and objects has been two separate research fields in computer vision for a long time. We hence proposed the first RHOBIN challenge: reconstruction of human-object interactions in conjunction with the RHOBIN workshop. It was aimed at bringing the research communities of human and object reconstruction as well as interaction modeling together to discuss techniques and exchange ideas. Our challenge consists of three tracks of 3D reconstruction from monocular RGB images with a focus on dealing with challenging interaction scenarios. Our challenge attracted more than 100 participants with more than 300 submissions, indicating the broad interest in the research communities. This paper describes the settings of our challenge and discusses the winning methods of each track in more detail. We observe that the human reconstruction task is becoming mature even under heavy occlusion settings while object pose estimation and joint reconstruction remain challenging tasks. With the growing interest in interaction modeling, we hope this report can provide useful insights and foster future research in this direction. Our workshop website can be found at \href{}{}.
PDF 14 pages, 5 tables, 7 figure. Technical report of the CVPR’23 workshop: RHOBIN challenge (


GaussianBody: Clothed Human Reconstruction via 3d Gaussian Splatting

Authors:Mengtian Li, Shengxiang Yao, Zhifeng Xie, Keyu Chen

In this work, we propose a novel clothed human reconstruction method called GaussianBody, based on 3D Gaussian Splatting. Compared with the costly neural radiance based models, 3D Gaussian Splatting has recently demonstrated great performance in terms of training time and rendering quality. However, applying the static 3D Gaussian Splatting model to the dynamic human reconstruction problem is non-trivial due to complicated non-rigid deformations and rich cloth details. To address these challenges, our method considers explicit pose-guided deformation to associate dynamic Gaussians across the canonical space and the observation space, introducing a physically-based prior with regularized transformations helps mitigate ambiguity between the two spaces. During the training process, we further propose a pose refinement strategy to update the pose regression for compensating the inaccurate initial estimation and a split-with-scale mechanism to enhance the density of regressed point clouds. The experiments validate that our method can achieve state-of-the-art photorealistic novel-view rendering results with high-quality details for dynamic clothed human bodies, along with explicit geometry reconstruction.


Template-Free Single-View 3D Human Digitalization with Diffusion-Guided LRM

Authors:Zhenzhen Weng, Jingyuan Liu, Hao Tan, Zhan Xu, Yang Zhou, Serena Yeung-Levy, Jimei Yang

Reconstructing 3D humans from a single image has been extensively investigated. However, existing approaches often fall short on capturing fine geometry and appearance details, hallucinating occluded parts with plausible details, and achieving generalization across unseen and in-the-wild datasets. We present Human-LRM, a diffusion-guided feed-forward model that predicts the implicit field of a human from a single image. Leveraging the power of the state-of-the-art reconstruction model (i.e., LRM) and generative model (i.e Stable Diffusion), our method is able to capture human without any template prior, e.g., SMPL, and effectively enhance occluded parts with rich and realistic details. Our approach first uses a single-view LRM model with an enhanced geometry decoder to get the triplane NeRF representation. The novel view renderings from the triplane NeRF provide strong geometry and color prior, from which we generate photo-realistic details for the occluded parts using a diffusion model. The generated multiple views then enable reconstruction with high-quality geometry and appearance, leading to superior overall performance comparing to all existing human reconstruction methods.
PDF Project Page:


TIFu: Tri-directional Implicit Function for High-Fidelity 3D Character Reconstruction

Authors:Byoungsung Lim, Seong-Whan Lee

Recent advances in implicit function-based approaches have shown promising results in 3D human reconstruction from a single RGB image. However, these methods are not sufficient to extend to more general cases, often generating dragged or disconnected body parts, particularly for animated characters. We argue that these limitations stem from the use of the existing point-level 3D shape representation, which lacks holistic 3D context understanding. Voxel-based reconstruction methods are more suitable for capturing the entire 3D space at once, however, these methods are not practical for high-resolution reconstructions due to their excessive memory usage. To address these challenges, we introduce Tri-directional Implicit Function (TIFu), which is a vector-level representation that increases global 3D consistencies while significantly reducing memory usage compared to voxel representations. We also introduce a new algorithm in 3D reconstruction at an arbitrary resolution by aggregating vectors along three orthogonal axes, resolving inherent problems with regressing fixed dimension of vectors. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performances in both our self-curated character dataset and the benchmark 3D human dataset. We provide both quantitative and qualitative analyses to support our findings.


An Embeddable Implicit IUVD Representation for Part-based 3D Human Surface Reconstruction

Authors:Baoxing Li, Yong Deng, Yehui Yang, Xu Zhao

To reconstruct a 3D human surface from a single image, it is important to consider human pose, shape and clothing details simultaneously. In recent years, a combination of parametric body models (such as SMPL) that capture body pose and shape prior, and neural implicit functions that learn flexible clothing details, has been used to integrate the advantages of both approaches. However, the combined representation introduces additional computation, e.g. signed distance calculation, in 3D body feature extraction, which exacerbates the redundancy of the implicit query-and-infer process and fails to preserve the underlying body shape prior. To address these issues, we propose a novel IUVD-Feedback representation, which consists of an IUVD occupancy function and a feedback query algorithm. With this representation, the time-consuming signed distance calculation is replaced by a simple linear transformation in the IUVD space, leveraging the SMPL UV maps. Additionally, the redundant query points in the query-and-infer process are reduced through a feedback mechanism. This leads to more reasonable 3D body features and more effective query points, successfully preserving the parametric body prior. Moreover, the IUVD-Feedback representation can be embedded into any existing implicit human reconstruction pipelines without modifying the trained neural networks. Experiments on THuman2.0 dataset demonstrate that the proposed IUVD-Feedback representation improves result robustness and achieves three times faster acceleration in the query-and-infer process. Furthermore, this representation has the potential to be used in generative applications by leveraging its inherited semantic information from the parametric body model.


Fine Structure-Aware Sampling: A New Sampling Training Scheme for Pixel-Aligned Implicit Models in Single-View Human Reconstruction

Authors:Kennard Yanting Chan, Fayao Liu, Guosheng Lin, Chuan Sheng Foo, Weisi Lin

Pixel-aligned implicit models, such as PIFu, PIFuHD, and ICON, are used for single-view clothed human reconstruction. These models need to be trained using a sampling training scheme. Existing sampling training schemes either fail to capture thin surfaces (e.g. ears, fingers) or cause noisy artefacts in reconstructed meshes. To address these problems, we introduce Fine Structured-Aware Sampling (FSS), a new sampling training scheme to train pixel-aligned implicit models for single-view human reconstruction. FSS resolves the aforementioned problems by proactively adapting to the thickness and complexity of surfaces. In addition, unlike existing sampling training schemes, FSS shows how normals of sample points can be capitalized in the training process to improve results. Lastly, to further improve the training process, FSS proposes a mesh thickness loss signal for pixel-aligned implicit models. It becomes computationally feasible to introduce this loss once a slight reworking of the pixel-aligned implicit function framework is carried out. Our results show that our methods significantly outperform SOTA methods qualitatively and quantitatively. Our code is publicly available at
PDF Accepted in Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2024 (AAAI 2024)


ANIM: Accurate Neural Implicit Model for Human Reconstruction from a single RGB-D image

Authors:Marco Pesavento, Yuanlu Xu, Nikolaos Sarafianos, Robert Maier, Ziyan Wang, Chun-Han Yao, Marco Volino, Edmond Boyer, Adrian Hilton, Tony Tung

Recent progress in human shape learning, shows that neural implicit models are effective in generating 3D human surfaces from limited number of views, and even from a single RGB image. However, existing monocular approaches still struggle to recover fine geometric details such as face, hands or cloth wrinkles. They are also easily prone to depth ambiguities that result in distorted geometries along the camera optical axis. In this paper, we explore the benefits of incorporating depth observations in the reconstruction process by introducing ANIM, a novel method that reconstructs arbitrary 3D human shapes from single-view RGB-D images with an unprecedented level of accuracy. Our model learns geometric details from both multi-resolution pixel-aligned and voxel-aligned features to leverage depth information and enable spatial relationships, mitigating depth ambiguities. We further enhance the quality of the reconstructed shape by introducing a depth-supervision strategy, which improves the accuracy of the signed distance field estimation of points that lie on the reconstructed surface. Experiments demonstrate that ANIM outperforms state-of-the-art works that use RGB, surface normals, point cloud or RGB-D data as input. In addition, we introduce ANIM-Real, a new multi-modal dataset comprising high-quality scans paired with consumer-grade RGB-D camera, and our protocol to fine-tune ANIM, enabling high-quality reconstruction from real-world human capture.
PDF Accepted to CVPR24; Project page:


Ultraman: Single Image 3D Human Reconstruction with Ultra Speed and Detail

Authors:Mingjin Chen, Junhao Chen, Xiaojun Ye, Huan-ang Gao, Xiaoxue Chen, Zhaoxin Fan, Hao Zhao

3D human body reconstruction has been a challenge in the field of computer vision. Previous methods are often time-consuming and difficult to capture the detailed appearance of the human body. In this paper, we propose a new method called \emph{Ultraman} for fast reconstruction of textured 3D human models from a single image. Compared to existing techniques, \emph{Ultraman} greatly improves the reconstruction speed and accuracy while preserving high-quality texture details. We present a set of new frameworks for human reconstruction consisting of three parts, geometric reconstruction, texture generation and texture mapping. Firstly, a mesh reconstruction framework is used, which accurately extracts 3D human shapes from a single image. At the same time, we propose a method to generate a multi-view consistent image of the human body based on a single image. This is finally combined with a novel texture mapping method to optimize texture details and ensure color consistency during reconstruction. Through extensive experiments and evaluations, we demonstrate the superior performance of \emph{Ultraman} on various standard datasets. In addition, \emph{Ultraman} outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of human rendering quality and speed. Upon acceptance of the article, we will make the code and data publicly available.
PDF Project Page:


PKU-DyMVHumans: A Multi-View Video Benchmark for High-Fidelity Dynamic Human Modeling

Authors:Xiaoyun Zheng, Liwei Liao, Xufeng Li, Jianbo Jiao, Rongjie Wang, Feng Gao, Shiqi Wang, Ronggang Wang

High-quality human reconstruction and photo-realistic rendering of a dynamic scene is a long-standing problem in computer vision and graphics. Despite considerable efforts invested in developing various capture systems and reconstruction algorithms, recent advancements still struggle with loose or oversized clothing and overly complex poses. In part, this is due to the challenges of acquiring high-quality human datasets. To facilitate the development of these fields, in this paper, we present PKU-DyMVHumans, a versatile human-centric dataset for high-fidelity reconstruction and rendering of dynamic human scenarios from dense multi-view videos. It comprises 8.2 million frames captured by more than 56 synchronized cameras across diverse scenarios. These sequences comprise 32 human subjects across 45 different scenarios, each with a high-detailed appearance and realistic human motion. Inspired by recent advancements in neural radiance field (NeRF)-based scene representations, we carefully set up an off-the-shelf framework that is easy to provide those state-of-the-art NeRF-based implementations and benchmark on PKU-DyMVHumans dataset. It is paving the way for various applications like fine-grained foreground/background decomposition, high-quality human reconstruction and photo-realistic novel view synthesis of a dynamic scene. Extensive studies are performed on the benchmark, demonstrating new observations and challenges that emerge from using such high-fidelity dynamic data. The dataset is available at:


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