2024-01-22 更新

Mementos: A Comprehensive Benchmark for Multimodal Large Language Model Reasoning over Image Sequences

Authors:Xiyao Wang, Yuhang Zhou, Xiaoyu Liu, Hongjin Lu, Yuancheng Xu, Feihong He, Jaehong Yoon, Taixi Lu, Gedas Bertasius, Mohit Bansal, Huaxiu Yao, Furong Huang

Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have demonstrated proficiency in handling a variety of visual-language tasks. However, current MLLM benchmarks are predominantly designed to evaluate reasoning based on static information about a single image, and the ability of modern MLLMs to extrapolate from image sequences, which is essential for understanding our ever-changing world, has been less investigated. To address this challenge, this paper introduces Mementos, a new benchmark designed to assess MLLMs’ sequential image reasoning abilities. Mementos features 4,761 diverse image sequences with varying lengths. We also employ a GPT-4 assisted method to evaluate MLLM reasoning performance. Through a careful evaluation of nine recent MLLMs on Mementos, including GPT-4V and Gemini, we find that they struggle to accurately describe dynamic information about given image sequences, often leading to hallucinations/misrepresentations of objects and their corresponding behaviors. Our quantitative analysis and case studies identify three key factors impacting MLLMs’ sequential image reasoning: the correlation between object and behavioral hallucinations, the influence of cooccurring behaviors, and the compounding impact of behavioral hallucinations. Our dataset is available at https://github.com/umd-huang-lab/Mementos.
PDF 27 pages, 23 figures


PHOENIX: Open-Source Language Adaption for Direct Preference Optimization

Authors:Matthias Uhlig, Sigurd Schacht, Sudarshan Kamath Barkur

Large language models have gained immense importance in recent years and have demonstrated outstanding results in solving various tasks. However, despite these achievements, many questions remain unanswered in the context of large language models. Besides the optimal use of the models for inference and the alignment of the results to the desired specifications, the transfer of models to other languages is still an underdeveloped area of research. The recent publication of models such as Llama-2 and Zephyr has provided new insights into architectural improvements and the use of human feedback. However, insights into adapting these techniques to other languages remain scarce. In this paper, we build on latest improvements and apply the Direct Preference Optimization(DPO) approach to the German language. The model is available at https://huggingface.co/DRXD1000/Phoenix.


Weakly Supervised Gaussian Contrastive Grounding with Large Multimodal Models for Video Question Answering

Authors:Haibo Wang, Chenghang Lai, Yixuan Sun, Weifeng Ge

Video Question Answering (VideoQA) aims to answer natural language questions based on the information observed in videos. Despite the recent success of Large Multimodal Models (LMMs) in image-language understanding and reasoning, they deal with VideoQA insufficiently by simply taking uniformly sampled frames as visual inputs, which ignores question-relevant visual clues. Moreover, there are no human annotations for question-critical timestamps in existing VideoQA datasets. In light of this, we propose a novel weakly supervised framework to enforce the LMMs to reason out the answers with question-critical moments as visual inputs. Specifically, we fuse the question and answer pairs as event descriptions to find multiple keyframes as target moments, which will be pseudo-labels. With these pseudo-labels as additionally weak supervision, we devise a lightweight Gaussian-based Contrastive Grounding (GCG) module. GCG learns multiple Gaussian functions to characterize the temporal structure of the video, and sample question-critical frames as positive moments to be the visual inputs of LMMs. Extensive experiments on several VideoQA benchmarks verify the effectiveness of our framework, and we achieve substantial improvements compared to previous state-of-the-art methods.


Q&A Prompts: Discovering Rich Visual Clues through Mining Question-Answer Prompts for VQA requiring Diverse World Knowledge

Authors:Haibi Wang, Weifeng Ge

With the breakthrough of multi-modal large language models, answering complex visual questions that demand advanced reasoning abilities and world knowledge has become a much more important testbed for developing AI models than ever. However, equipping AI models with robust cross-modality reasoning ability remains challenging since the cognition scheme of humans has not been understood systematically. In this paper, we believe that if we can collect visual clues in the given image as much as possible, we will recognize the image more accurately, understand the question better, recall relevant knowledge more easily, and finally reason out the answer. We discover these rich visual clues by mining question-answer pairs in images and sending them into multi-modal large language models as prompts. We call the proposed method Q&A Prompts. Specifically, we first use the image-answer pairs and the corresponding questions in the training set as inputs and outputs to train a visual question generation model. Then, we use an image tagging model to identify various instances and send packaged image-tag pairs into the visual question generation model to generate relevant questions with the extracted image tags as answers. Finally, we encode these generated question-answer pairs as prompts with a visual-aware prompting module and send them into pre-trained multi-modal large language models to reason out the final answers. Experimental results show that, compared with state-of-the-art methods, our Q&A Prompts achieves substantial improvements on the challenging visual question answering datasets requiring reasoning over diverse world knowledge, such as OK-VQA and A-OKVQA.


Tool-LMM: A Large Multi-Modal Model for Tool Agent Learning

Authors:Chenyu Wang, Weixin Luo, Qianyu Chen, Haonan Mai, Jindi Guo, Sixun Dong, Xiaohua, Xuan, Zhengxin Li, Lin Ma, Shenghua Gao

Recently, the astonishing performance of large language models (LLMs) in natural language comprehension and generation tasks triggered lots of exploration of using them as central controllers to build agent systems. Multiple studies focus on bridging the LLMs to external tools to extend the application scenarios. However, the current LLMs’ perceiving tool-use ability is limited to a single text query, which may result in ambiguity in understanding the users’ real intentions. LLMs are expected to eliminate that by perceiving the visual- or auditory-grounded instructions’ information. Therefore, in this paper, we propose Tool-LMM, a system incorporating open-source LLMs and multi-modal encoders so that the learnt LLMs can be conscious of multi-modal input instruction and then select the function-matched tool correctly. To facilitate the evaluation of the model’s capability, we collect a dataset featured by consisting of multi-modal input tools from HuggingFace. Another important feature of our dataset is that our dataset also contains multiple potential choices for the same instruction due to the existence of identical functions and synonymous functions, which provides more potential solutions for the same query. The experiments reveal that our LMM is capable of recommending appropriate tools for multi-modal instructions. Codes and data are available at https://github.com/Tool-LMM/Tool-LMM.
PDF 21 pages, 9 figures, 10 tables


Mitigating Hallucinations of Large Language Models via Knowledge Consistent Alignment

Authors:Fanqi Wan, Xinting Huang, Leyang Cui, Xiaojun Quan, Wei Bi, Shuming Shi

While Large Language Models (LLMs) have proven to be exceptional on a variety of tasks after alignment, they may still produce responses that contradict the context or world knowledge confidently, a phenomenon known as ``hallucination’’. In this paper, we demonstrate that reducing the inconsistency between the external knowledge encapsulated in the training data and the intrinsic knowledge inherited in the pretraining corpus could mitigate hallucination in alignment. Specifically, we introduce a novel knowledge consistent alignment (KCA) approach, which involves automatically formulating examinations based on external knowledge for accessing the comprehension of LLMs. For data encompassing knowledge inconsistency, KCA implements several simple yet efficient strategies for processing. We illustrate the superior performance of the proposed KCA approach in mitigating hallucinations across six benchmarks using LLMs of different backbones and scales. Furthermore, we confirm the correlation between knowledge inconsistency and hallucination, signifying the effectiveness of reducing knowledge inconsistency in alleviating hallucinations. Our code, model weights, and data are public at \url{https://github.com/fanqiwan/KCA}.
PDF Work in progress


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