Diffusion Models

2024-01-05 更新

Improving Diffusion-Based Image Synthesis with Context Prediction

Authors:Ling Yang, Jingwei Liu, Shenda Hong, Zhilong Zhang, Zhilin Huang, Zheming Cai, Wentao Zhang, Bin Cui

Diffusion models are a new class of generative models, and have dramatically promoted image generation with unprecedented quality and diversity. Existing diffusion models mainly try to reconstruct input image from a corrupted one with a pixel-wise or feature-wise constraint along spatial axes. However, such point-based reconstruction may fail to make each predicted pixel/feature fully preserve its neighborhood context, impairing diffusion-based image synthesis. As a powerful source of automatic supervisory signal, context has been well studied for learning representations. Inspired by this, we for the first time propose ConPreDiff to improve diffusion-based image synthesis with context prediction. We explicitly reinforce each point to predict its neighborhood context (i.e., multi-stride features/tokens/pixels) with a context decoder at the end of diffusion denoising blocks in training stage, and remove the decoder for inference. In this way, each point can better reconstruct itself by preserving its semantic connections with neighborhood context. This new paradigm of ConPreDiff can generalize to arbitrary discrete and continuous diffusion backbones without introducing extra parameters in sampling procedure. Extensive experiments are conducted on unconditional image generation, text-to-image generation and image inpainting tasks. Our ConPreDiff consistently outperforms previous methods and achieves a new SOTA text-to-image generation results on MS-COCO, with a zero-shot FID score of 6.21.
PDF Accepted by NeurIPS 2023


DiffusionEdge: Diffusion Probabilistic Model for Crisp Edge Detection

Authors:Yunfan Ye, Kai Xu, Yuhang Huang, Renjiao Yi, Zhiping Cai

Limited by the encoder-decoder architecture, learning-based edge detectors usually have difficulty predicting edge maps that satisfy both correctness and crispness. With the recent success of the diffusion probabilistic model (DPM), we found it is especially suitable for accurate and crisp edge detection since the denoising process is directly applied to the original image size. Therefore, we propose the first diffusion model for the task of general edge detection, which we call DiffusionEdge. To avoid expensive computational resources while retaining the final performance, we apply DPM in the latent space and enable the classic cross-entropy loss which is uncertainty-aware in pixel level to directly optimize the parameters in latent space in a distillation manner. We also adopt a decoupled architecture to speed up the denoising process and propose a corresponding adaptive Fourier filter to adjust the latent features of specific frequencies. With all the technical designs, DiffusionEdge can be stably trained with limited resources, predicting crisp and accurate edge maps with much fewer augmentation strategies. Extensive experiments on four edge detection benchmarks demonstrate the superiority of DiffusionEdge both in correctness and crispness. On the NYUDv2 dataset, compared to the second best, we increase the ODS, OIS (without post-processing) and AC by 30.2%, 28.1% and 65.1%, respectively. Code: https://github.com/GuHuangAI/DiffusionEdge.


Energy based diffusion generator for efficient sampling of Boltzmann distributions

Authors:Yan Wang, Ling Guo, Hao Wu, Tao Zhou

We introduce a novel sampler called the energy based diffusion generator for generating samples from arbitrary target distributions. The sampling model employs a structure similar to a variational autoencoder, utilizing a decoder to transform latent variables from a simple distribution into random variables approximating the target distribution, and we design an encoder based on the diffusion model. Leveraging the powerful modeling capacity of the diffusion model for complex distributions, we can obtain an accurate variational estimate of the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the distributions of the generated samples and the target. Moreover, we propose a decoder based on generalized Hamiltonian dynamics to further enhance sampling performance. Through empirical evaluation, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our method across various complex distribution functions, showcasing its superiority compared to existing methods.


Bring Metric Functions into Diffusion Models

Authors:Jie An, Zhengyuan Yang, Jianfeng Wang, Linjie Li, Zicheng Liu, Lijuan Wang, Jiebo Luo

We introduce a Cascaded Diffusion Model (Cas-DM) that improves a Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Model (DDPM) by effectively incorporating additional metric functions in training. Metric functions such as the LPIPS loss have been proven highly effective in consistency models derived from the score matching. However, for the diffusion counterparts, the methodology and efficacy of adding extra metric functions remain unclear. One major challenge is the mismatch between the noise predicted by a DDPM at each step and the desired clean image that the metric function works well on. To address this problem, we propose Cas-DM, a network architecture that cascades two network modules to effectively apply metric functions to the diffusion model training. The first module, similar to a standard DDPM, learns to predict the added noise and is unaffected by the metric function. The second cascaded module learns to predict the clean image, thereby facilitating the metric function computation. Experiment results show that the proposed diffusion model backbone enables the effective use of the LPIPS loss, leading to state-of-the-art image quality (FID, sFID, IS) on various established benchmarks.


2024-01-05 更新

SynCDR : Training Cross Domain Retrieval Models with Synthetic Data

Authors:Samarth Mishra, Kate Saenko, Venkatesh Saligrama

In cross-domain retrieval, a model is required to identify images from the same semantic category across two visual domains. For instance, given a sketch of an object, a model needs to retrieve a real image of it from an online store’s catalog. A standard approach for such a problem is learning a feature space of images where Euclidean distances reflect similarity. Even without human annotations, which may be expensive to acquire, prior methods function reasonably well using unlabeled images for training. Our problem constraint takes this further to scenarios where the two domains do not necessarily share any common categories in training data. This can occur when the two domains in question come from different versions of some biometric sensor recording identities of different people. We posit a simple solution, which is to generate synthetic data to fill in these missing category examples across domains. This, we do via category preserving translation of images from one visual domain to another. We compare approaches specifically trained for this translation for a pair of domains, as well as those that can use large-scale pre-trained text-to-image diffusion models via prompts, and find that the latter can generate better replacement synthetic data, leading to more accurate cross-domain retrieval models. Code for our work is available at https://github.com/samarth4149/SynCDR .
PDF Pre-print


Diff-PCR: Diffusion-Based Correspondence Searching in Doubly Stochastic Matrix Space for Point Cloud Registration

Authors:Qianliang Wu, Haobo Jiang, Yaqing Ding, Lei Luo, Jin Xie, Jian Yang

Efficiently finding optimal correspondences between point clouds is crucial for solving both rigid and non-rigid point cloud registration problems. Existing methods often rely on geometric or semantic feature embedding to establish correspondences and estimate transformations or flow fields. Recently, state-of-the-art methods have employed RAFT-like iterative updates to refine the solution. However, these methods have certain limitations. Firstly, their iterative refinement design lacks transparency, and their iterative updates follow a fixed path during the refinement process, which can lead to suboptimal results. Secondly, these methods overlook the importance of refining or optimizing correspondences (or matching matrices) as a precursor to solving transformations or flow fields. They typically compute candidate correspondences based on distances in the point feature space. However, they only project the candidate matching matrix into some matrix space once with Sinkhorn or dual softmax operations to obtain final correspondences. This one-shot projected matching matrix may be far from the globally optimal one, and these approaches do not consider the distribution of the target matching matrix. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that exploits the Denoising Diffusion Model to predict a searching gradient for the optimal matching matrix within the Doubly Stochastic Matrix Space. During the reverse denoising process, our method iteratively searches for better solutions along this denoising gradient, which points towards the maximum likelihood direction of the target matching matrix. Our method offers flexibility by allowing the search to start from any initial matching matrix provided by the online backbone or white noise. Experimental evaluations on the 3DMatch/3DLoMatch and 4DMatch/4DLoMatch datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our newly designed framework.


Robust single-particle cryo-EM image denoising and restoration

Authors:Jing Zhang, Tengfei Zhao, ShiYu Hu, Xin Zhao

Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has achieved near-atomic level resolution of biomolecules by reconstructing 2D micrographs. However, the resolution and accuracy of the reconstructed particles are significantly reduced due to the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and complex noise structure of cryo-EM images. In this paper, we introduce a diffusion model with post-processing framework to effectively denoise and restore single particle cryo-EM images. Our method outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) denoising methods by effectively removing structural noise that has not been addressed before. Additionally, more accurate and high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction structures can be obtained from denoised cryo-EM images.
PDF This paper is accepted to ICASSP 2024


Joint Generative Modeling of Scene Graphs and Images via Diffusion Models

Authors:Bicheng Xu, Qi Yan, Renjie Liao, Lele Wang, Leonid Sigal

In this paper, we present a novel generative task: joint scene graph - image generation. While previous works have explored image generation conditioned on scene graphs or layouts, our task is distinctive and important as it involves generating scene graphs themselves unconditionally from noise, enabling efficient and interpretable control for image generation. Our task is challenging, requiring the generation of plausible scene graphs with heterogeneous attributes for nodes (objects) and edges (relations among objects), including continuous object bounding boxes and discrete object and relation categories. We introduce a novel diffusion model, DiffuseSG, that jointly models the adjacency matrix along with heterogeneous node and edge attributes. We explore various types of encodings for the categorical data, relaxing it into a continuous space. With a graph transformer being the denoiser, DiffuseSG successively denoises the scene graph representation in a continuous space and discretizes the final representation to generate the clean scene graph. Additionally, we introduce an IoU regularization to enhance the empirical performance. Our model significantly outperforms existing methods in scene graph generation on the Visual Genome and COCO-Stuff datasets, both on standard and newly introduced metrics that better capture the problem complexity. Moreover, we demonstrate the additional benefits of our model in two downstream applications: 1) excelling in a series of scene graph completion tasks, and 2) improving scene graph detection models by using extra training samples generated from DiffuseSG.


Towards a Simultaneous and Granular Identity-Expression Control in Personalized Face Generation

Authors:Renshuai Liu, Bowen Ma, Wei Zhang, Zhipeng Hu, Changjie Fan, Tangjie Lv, Yu Ding, Xuan Cheng

In human-centric content generation, the pre-trained text-to-image models struggle to produce user-wanted portrait images, which retain the identity of individuals while exhibiting diverse expressions. This paper introduces our efforts towards personalized face generation. To this end, we propose a novel multi-modal face generation framework, capable of simultaneous identity-expression control and more fine-grained expression synthesis. Our expression control is so sophisticated that it can be specialized by the fine-grained emotional vocabulary. We devise a novel diffusion model that can undertake the task of simultaneously face swapping and reenactment. Due to the entanglement of identity and expression, it’s nontrivial to separately and precisely control them in one framework, thus has not been explored yet. To overcome this, we propose several innovative designs in the conditional diffusion model, including balancing identity and expression encoder, improved midpoint sampling, and explicitly background conditioning. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the controllability and scalability of the proposed framework, in comparison with state-of-the-art text-to-image, face swapping, and face reenactment methods.


VideoDrafter: Content-Consistent Multi-Scene Video Generation with LLM

Authors:Fuchen Long, Zhaofan Qiu, Ting Yao, Tao Mei

The recent innovations and breakthroughs in diffusion models have significantly expanded the possibilities of generating high-quality videos for the given prompts. Most existing works tackle the single-scene scenario with only one video event occurring in a single background. Extending to generate multi-scene videos nevertheless is not trivial and necessitates to nicely manage the logic in between while preserving the consistent visual appearance of key content across video scenes. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, namely VideoDrafter, for content-consistent multi-scene video generation. Technically, VideoDrafter leverages Large Language Models (LLM) to convert the input prompt into comprehensive multi-scene script that benefits from the logical knowledge learnt by LLM. The script for each scene includes a prompt describing the event, the foreground/background entities, as well as camera movement. VideoDrafter identifies the common entities throughout the script and asks LLM to detail each entity. The resultant entity description is then fed into a text-to-image model to generate a reference image for each entity. Finally, VideoDrafter outputs a multi-scene video by generating each scene video via a diffusion process that takes the reference images, the descriptive prompt of the event and camera movement into account. The diffusion model incorporates the reference images as the condition and alignment to strengthen the content consistency of multi-scene videos. Extensive experiments demonstrate that VideoDrafter outperforms the SOTA video generation models in terms of visual quality, content consistency, and user preference.
PDF Project website: https://videodrafter.github.io


AID-DTI: Accelerating High-fidelity Diffusion Tensor Imaging with Detail-Preserving Model-based Deep Learning

Authors:Wenxin Fan, Jian Cheng, Cheng Li, Xinrui Ma, Jing Yang, Juan Zou, Ruoyou Wu, Qiegen Liu, Shanshan Wang

Deep learning has shown great potential in accelerating diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Nevertheless, existing methods tend to suffer from Rician noise and detail loss in reconstructing the DTI-derived parametric maps especially when sparsely sampled q-space data are used. This paper proposes a novel method, AID-DTI (Accelerating hIgh fiDelity Diffusion Tensor Imaging), to facilitate fast and accurate DTI with only six measurements. AID-DTI is equipped with a newly designed Singular Value Decomposition (SVD)-based regularizer, which can effectively capture fine details while suppressing noise during network training. Experimental results on Human Connectome Project (HCP) data consistently demonstrate that the proposed method estimates DTI parameter maps with fine-grained details and outperforms three state-of-the-art methods both quantitatively and qualitatively.


Moonshot: Towards Controllable Video Generation and Editing with Multimodal Conditions

Authors:David Junhao Zhang, Dongxu Li, Hung Le, Mike Zheng Shou, Caiming Xiong, Doyen Sahoo

Most existing video diffusion models (VDMs) are limited to mere text conditions. Thereby, they are usually lacking in control over visual appearance and geometry structure of the generated videos. This work presents Moonshot, a new video generation model that conditions simultaneously on multimodal inputs of image and text. The model builts upon a core module, called multimodal video block (MVB), which consists of conventional spatialtemporal layers for representing video features, and a decoupled cross-attention layer to address image and text inputs for appearance conditioning. In addition, we carefully design the model architecture such that it can optionally integrate with pre-trained image ControlNet modules for geometry visual conditions, without needing of extra training overhead as opposed to prior methods. Experiments show that with versatile multimodal conditioning mechanisms, Moonshot demonstrates significant improvement on visual quality and temporal consistency compared to existing models. In addition, the model can be easily repurposed for a variety of generative applications, such as personalized video generation, image animation and video editing, unveiling its potential to serve as a fundamental architecture for controllable video generation. Models will be made public on https://github.com/salesforce/LAVIS.
PDF project page: https://showlab.github.io/Moonshot/


DGDNN: Decoupled Graph Diffusion Neural Network for Stock Movement Prediction

Authors:Zinuo You, Zijian Shi, Hongbo Bo, John Cartlidge, Li Zhang, Yan Ge

Forecasting future stock trends remains challenging for academia and industry due to stochastic inter-stock dynamics and hierarchical intra-stock dynamics influencing stock prices. In recent years, graph neural networks have achieved remarkable performance in this problem by formulating multiple stocks as graph-structured data. However, most of these approaches rely on artificially defined factors to construct static stock graphs, which fail to capture the intrinsic interdependencies between stocks that rapidly evolve. In addition, these methods often ignore the hierarchical features of the stocks and lose distinctive information within. In this work, we propose a novel graph learning approach implemented without expert knowledge to address these issues. First, our approach automatically constructs dynamic stock graphs by entropy-driven edge generation from a signal processing perspective. Then, we further learn task-optimal dependencies between stocks via a generalized graph diffusion process on constructed stock graphs. Last, a decoupled representation learning scheme is adopted to capture distinctive hierarchical intra-stock features. Experimental results demonstrate substantial improvements over state-of-the-art baselines on real-world datasets. Moreover, the ablation study and sensitivity study further illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in modeling the time-evolving inter-stock and intra-stock dynamics.
PDF 12 pages, 5 figures, author manuscript accepted for ICAART 2024 (International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence)


文章作者: 木子已
版权声明: 本博客所有文章除特別声明外,均采用 CC BY 4.0 许可协议。转载请注明来源 木子已 !