2023-12-01 更新

ID-like Prompt Learning for Few-Shot Out-of-Distribution Detection

Authors:Yichen Bai, Zongbo Han, Changqing Zhang, Bing Cao, Xiaoheng Jiang, Qinghua Hu

Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection methods often exploit auxiliary outliers to train model identifying OOD samples, especially discovering challenging outliers from auxiliary outliers dataset to improve OOD detection. However, they may still face limitations in effectively distinguishing between the most challenging OOD samples that are much like in-distribution (ID) data, i.e., ID-like samples. To this end, we propose a novel OOD detection framework that discovers ID-like outliers using CLIP from the vicinity space of the ID samples, thus helping to identify these most challenging OOD samples. Then a prompt learning framework is proposed that utilizes the identified ID-like outliers to further leverage the capabilities of CLIP for OOD detection. Benefiting from the powerful CLIP, we only need a small number of ID samples to learn the prompts of the model without exposing other auxiliary outlier datasets. By focusing on the most challenging ID-like OOD samples and elegantly exploiting the capabilities of CLIP, our method achieves superior few-shot learning performance on various real-world image datasets (e.g., in 4-shot OOD detection on the ImageNet-1k dataset, our method reduces the average FPR95 by 12.16% and improves the average AUROC by 2.76%, compared to state-of-the-art methods).
PDF Under review


RelVAE: Generative Pretraining for few-shot Visual Relationship Detection

Authors:Sotiris Karapiperis, Markos Diomataris, Vassilis Pitsikalis

Visual relations are complex, multimodal concepts that play an important role in the way humans perceive the world. As a result of their complexity, high-quality, diverse and large scale datasets for visual relations are still absent. In an attempt to overcome this data barrier, we choose to focus on the problem of few-shot Visual Relationship Detection (VRD), a setting that has been so far neglected by the community. In this work we present the first pretraining method for few-shot predicate classification that does not require any annotated relations. We achieve this by introducing a generative model that is able to capture the variation of semantic, visual and spatial information of relations inside a latent space and later exploiting its representations in order to achieve efficient few-shot classification. We construct few-shot training splits and show quantitative experiments on VG200 and VRD datasets where our model outperforms the baselines. Lastly we attempt to interpret the decisions of the model by conducting various qualitative experiments.


Target-Free Compound Activity Prediction via Few-Shot Learning

Authors:Peter Eckmann, Jake Anderson, Michael K. Gilson, Rose Yu

Predicting the activities of compounds against protein-based or phenotypic assays using only a few known compounds and their activities is a common task in target-free drug discovery. Existing few-shot learning approaches are limited to predicting binary labels (active/inactive). However, in real-world drug discovery, degrees of compound activity are highly relevant. We study Few-Shot Compound Activity Prediction (FS-CAP) and design a novel neural architecture to meta-learn continuous compound activities across large bioactivity datasets. Our model aggregates encodings generated from the known compounds and their activities to capture assay information. We also introduce a separate encoder for the unknown compound. We show that FS-CAP surpasses traditional similarity-based techniques as well as other state of the art few-shot learning methods on a variety of target-free drug discovery settings and datasets.
PDF 9 pages, 2 figures


LLaFS: When Large-Language Models Meet Few-Shot Segmentation

Authors:Lanyun Zhu, Tianrun Chen, Deyi Ji, Jieping Ye, Jun Liu

This paper proposes LLaFS, the first attempt to leverage large language models (LLMs) in few-shot segmentation. In contrast to the conventional few-shot segmentation methods that only rely on the limited and biased information from the annotated support images, LLaFS leverages the vast prior knowledge gained by LLM as an effective supplement and directly uses the LLM to segment images in a few-shot manner. To enable the text-based LLM to handle image-related tasks, we carefully design an input instruction that allows the LLM to produce segmentation results represented as polygons, and propose a region-attribute table to simulate the human visual mechanism and provide multi-modal guidance. We also synthesize pseudo samples and use curriculum learning for pretraining to augment data and achieve better optimization. LLaFS achieves state-of-the-art results on multiple datasets, showing the potential of using LLMs for few-shot computer vision tasks. Code will be available at https://github.com/lanyunzhu99/LLaFS.


When the Few Outweigh the Many: Illicit Content Recognition with Few-Shot Learning

Authors:G. Cascavilla, G. Catolino, M. Conti, D. Mellios, D. A. Tamburri

The anonymity and untraceability benefits of the Dark web account for the exponentially-increased potential of its popularity while creating a suitable womb for many illicit activities, to date. Hence, in collaboration with cybersecurity and law enforcement agencies, research has provided approaches for recognizing and classifying illicit activities with most exploiting textual dark web markets’ content recognition; few such approaches use images that originated from dark web content. This paper investigates this alternative technique for recognizing illegal activities from images. In particular, we investigate label-agnostic learning techniques like One-Shot and Few-Shot learning featuring the use Siamese neural networks, a state-of-the-art approach in the field. Our solution manages to handle small-scale datasets with promising accuracy. In particular, Siamese neural networks reach 90.9% on 20-Shot experiments over a 10-class dataset; this leads us to conclude that such models are a promising and cheaper alternative to the definition of automated law-enforcing machinery over the dark web.


Robust Transductive Few-shot Learning via Joint Message Passing and Prototype-based Soft-label Propagation

Authors:Jiahui Wang, Qin Xu, Bo Jiang, Bin Luo

Few-shot learning (FSL) aims to develop a learning model with the ability to generalize to new classes using a few support samples. For transductive FSL tasks, prototype learning and label propagation methods are commonly employed. Prototype methods generally first learn the representative prototypes from the support set and then determine the labels of queries based on the metric between query samples and prototypes. Label propagation methods try to propagate the labels of support samples on the constructed graph encoding the relationships between both support and query samples. This paper aims to integrate these two principles together and develop an efficient and robust transductive FSL approach, termed Prototype-based Soft-label Propagation (PSLP). Specifically, we first estimate the soft-label presentation for each query sample by leveraging prototypes. Then, we conduct soft-label propagation on our learned query-support graph. Both steps are conducted progressively to boost their respective performance. Moreover, to learn effective prototypes for soft-label estimation as well as the desirable query-support graph for soft-label propagation, we design a new joint message passing scheme to learn sample presentation and relational graph jointly. Our PSLP method is parameter-free and can be implemented very efficiently. On four popular datasets, our method achieves competitive results on both balanced and imbalanced settings compared to the state-of-the-art methods. The code will be released upon acceptance.


MM-Narrator: Narrating Long-form Videos with Multimodal In-Context Learning

Authors:Chaoyi Zhang, Kevin Lin, Zhengyuan Yang, Jianfeng Wang, Linjie Li, Chung-Ching Lin, Zicheng Liu, Lijuan Wang

We present MM-Narrator, a novel system leveraging GPT-4 with multimodal in-context learning for the generation of audio descriptions (AD). Unlike previous methods that primarily focused on downstream fine-tuning with short video clips, MM-Narrator excels in generating precise audio descriptions for videos of extensive lengths, even beyond hours, in an autoregressive manner. This capability is made possible by the proposed memory-augmented generation process, which effectively utilizes both the short-term textual context and long-term visual memory through an efficient register-and-recall mechanism. These contextual memories compile pertinent past information, including storylines and character identities, ensuring an accurate tracking and depicting of story-coherent and character-centric audio descriptions. Maintaining the training-free design of MM-Narrator, we further propose a complexity-based demonstration selection strategy to largely enhance its multi-step reasoning capability via few-shot multimodal in-context learning (MM-ICL). Experimental results on MAD-eval dataset demonstrate that MM-Narrator consistently outperforms both the existing fine-tuning-based approaches and LLM-based approaches in most scenarios, as measured by standard evaluation metrics. Additionally, we introduce the first segment-based evaluator for recurrent text generation. Empowered by GPT-4, this evaluator comprehensively reasons and marks AD generation performance in various extendable dimensions.
PDF Project page at https://mm-narrator.github.io/


Focus on Query: Adversarial Mining Transformer for Few-Shot Segmentation

Authors:Yuan Wang, Naisong Luo, Tianzhu Zhang

Few-shot segmentation (FSS) aims to segment objects of new categories given only a handful of annotated samples. Previous works focus their efforts on exploring the support information while paying less attention to the mining of the critical query branch. In this paper, we rethink the importance of support information and propose a new query-centric FSS model Adversarial Mining Transformer (AMFormer), which achieves accurate query image segmentation with only rough support guidance or even weak support labels. The proposed AMFormer enjoys several merits. First, we design an object mining transformer (G) that can achieve the expansion of incomplete region activated by support clue, and a detail mining transformer (D) to discriminate the detailed local difference between the expanded mask and the ground truth. Second, we propose to train G and D via an adversarial process, where G is optimized to generate more accurate masks approaching ground truth to fool D. We conduct extensive experiments on commonly used Pascal-5i and COCO-20i benchmarks and achieve state-of-the-art results across all settings. In addition, the decent performance with weak support labels in our query-centric paradigm may inspire the development of more general FSS models. Code will be available at https://github.com/Wyxdm/AMNet.
PDF Accepted to NeurIPS 2023


Back to 3D: Few-Shot 3D Keypoint Detection with Back-Projected 2D Features

Authors:Thomas Wimmer, Peter Wonka, Maks Ovsjanikov

With the immense growth of dataset sizes and computing resources in recent years, so-called foundation models have become popular in NLP and vision tasks. In this work, we propose to explore foundation models for the task of keypoint detection on 3D shapes. A unique characteristic of keypoint detection is that it requires semantic and geometric awareness while demanding high localization accuracy. To address this problem, we propose, first, to back-project features from large pre-trained 2D vision models onto 3D shapes and employ them for this task. We show that we obtain robust 3D features that contain rich semantic information and analyze multiple candidate features stemming from different 2D foundation models. Second, we employ a keypoint candidate optimization module which aims to match the average observed distribution of keypoints on the shape and is guided by the back-projected features. The resulting approach achieves a new state of the art for few-shot keypoint detection on the KeyPointNet dataset, almost doubling the performance of the previous best methods.
PDF Project page: https://wimmerth.github.io/back-to-3d.html


Few-shot Image Generation via Style Adaptation and Content Preservation

Authors:Xiaosheng He, Fan Yang, Fayao Liu, Guosheng Lin

Training a generative model with limited data (e.g., 10) is a very challenging task. Many works propose to fine-tune a pre-trained GAN model. However, this can easily result in overfitting. In other words, they manage to adapt the style but fail to preserve the content, where \textit{style} denotes the specific properties that defines a domain while \textit{content} denotes the domain-irrelevant information that represents diversity. Recent works try to maintain a pre-defined correspondence to preserve the content, however, the diversity is still not enough and it may affect style adaptation. In this work, we propose a paired image reconstruction approach for content preservation. We propose to introduce an image translation module to GAN transferring, where the module teaches the generator to separate style and content, and the generator provides training data to the translation module in return. Qualitative and quantitative experiments show that our method consistently surpasses the state-of-the-art methods in few shot setting.


Sketch Input Method Editor: A Comprehensive Dataset and Methodology for Systematic Input Recognition

Authors:Guangming Zhu, Siyuan Wang, Qing Cheng, Kelong Wu, Hao Li, Liang Zhang

With the recent surge in the use of touchscreen devices, free-hand sketching has emerged as a promising modality for human-computer interaction. While previous research has focused on tasks such as recognition, retrieval, and generation of familiar everyday objects, this study aims to create a Sketch Input Method Editor (SketchIME) specifically designed for a professional C4I system. Within this system, sketches are utilized as low-fidelity prototypes for recommending standardized symbols in the creation of comprehensive situation maps. This paper also presents a systematic dataset comprising 374 specialized sketch types, and proposes a simultaneous recognition and segmentation architecture with multilevel supervision between recognition and segmentation to improve performance and enhance interpretability. By incorporating few-shot domain adaptation and class-incremental learning, the network’s ability to adapt to new users and extend to new task-specific classes is significantly enhanced. Results from experiments conducted on both the proposed dataset and the SPG dataset illustrate the superior performance of the proposed architecture. Our dataset and code are publicly available at https://github.com/Anony517/SketchIME.
PDF The paper has been accepted by ACM Multimedia 2023


TIDE: Test Time Few Shot Object Detection

Authors:Weikai Li, Hongfeng Wei, Yanlai Wu, Jie Yang, Yudi Ruan, Yuan Li, Ying Tang

Few-shot object detection (FSOD) aims to extract semantic knowledge from limited object instances of novel categories within a target domain. Recent advances in FSOD focus on fine-tuning the base model based on a few objects via meta-learning or data augmentation. Despite their success, the majority of them are grounded with parametric readjustment to generalize on novel objects, which face considerable challenges in Industry 5.0, such as (i) a certain amount of fine-tuning time is required, and (ii) the parameters of the constructed model being unavailable due to the privilege protection, making the fine-tuning fail. Such constraints naturally limit its application in scenarios with real-time configuration requirements or within black-box settings. To tackle the challenges mentioned above, we formalize a novel FSOD task, referred to as Test TIme Few Shot DEtection (TIDE), where the model is un-tuned in the configuration procedure. To that end, we introduce an asymmetric architecture for learning a support-instance-guided dynamic category classifier. Further, a cross-attention module and a multi-scale resizer are provided to enhance the model performance. Experimental results on multiple few-shot object detection platforms reveal that the proposed TIDE significantly outperforms existing contemporary methods. The implementation codes are available at https://github.com/deku-0621/TIDE


Audio Prompt Tuning for Universal Sound Separation

Authors:Yuzhuo Liu, Xubo Liu, Yan Zhao, Yuanyuan Wang, Rui Xia, Pingchuan Tain, Yuxuan Wang

Universal sound separation (USS) is a task to separate arbitrary sounds from an audio mixture. Existing USS systems are capable of separating arbitrary sources, given a few examples of the target sources as queries. However, separating arbitrary sounds with a single system is challenging, and the robustness is not always guaranteed. In this work, we propose audio prompt tuning (APT), a simple yet effective approach to enhance existing USS systems. Specifically, APT improves the separation performance of specific sources through training a small number of prompt parameters with limited audio samples, while maintaining the generalization of the USS model by keeping its parameters frozen. We evaluate the proposed method on MUSDB18 and ESC-50 datasets. Compared with the baseline model, APT can improve the signal-to-distortion ratio performance by 0.67 dB and 2.06 dB using the full training set of two datasets. Moreover, APT with only 5 audio samples even outperforms the baseline systems utilizing full training data on the ESC-50 dataset, indicating the great potential of few-shot APT.


TeG-DG: Textually Guided Domain Generalization for Face Anti-Spoofing

Authors:Lianrui Mu, Jianhong Bai, Xiaoxuan He, Jiangnan Ye, Xiaoyu Liang, Yuchen Yang, Jiedong Zhuang, Haoji Hu

Enhancing the domain generalization performance of Face Anti-Spoofing (FAS) techniques has emerged as a research focus. Existing methods are dedicated to extracting domain-invariant features from various training domains. Despite the promising performance, the extracted features inevitably contain residual style feature bias (e.g., illumination, capture device), resulting in inferior generalization performance. In this paper, we propose an alternative and effective solution, the Textually Guided Domain Generalization (TeG-DG) framework, which can effectively leverage text information for cross-domain alignment. Our core insight is that text, as a more abstract and universal form of expression, can capture the commonalities and essential characteristics across various attacks, bridging the gap between different image domains. Contrary to existing vision-language models, the proposed framework is elaborately designed to enhance the domain generalization ability of the FAS task. Concretely, we first design a Hierarchical Attention Fusion (HAF) module to enable adaptive aggregation of visual features at different levels; Then, a Textual-Enhanced Visual Discriminator (TEVD) is proposed for not only better alignment between the two modalities but also to regularize the classifier with unbiased text features. TeG-DG significantly outperforms previous approaches, especially in situations with extremely limited source domain data (~14% and ~12% improvements on HTER and AUC respectively), showcasing impressive few-shot performance.


DiffCAD: Weakly-Supervised Probabilistic CAD Model Retrieval and Alignment from an RGB Image

Authors:Daoyi Gao, Dávid Rozenberszki, Stefan Leutenegger, Angela Dai

Perceiving 3D structures from RGB images based on CAD model primitives can enable an effective, efficient 3D object-based representation of scenes. However, current approaches rely on supervision from expensive annotations of CAD models associated with real images, and encounter challenges due to the inherent ambiguities in the task — both in depth-scale ambiguity in monocular perception, as well as inexact matches of CAD database models to real observations. We thus propose DiffCAD, the first weakly-supervised probabilistic approach to CAD retrieval and alignment from an RGB image. We formulate this as a conditional generative task, leveraging diffusion to learn implicit probabilistic models capturing the shape, pose, and scale of CAD objects in an image. This enables multi-hypothesis generation of different plausible CAD reconstructions, requiring only a few hypotheses to characterize ambiguities in depth/scale and inexact shape matches. Our approach is trained only on synthetic data, leveraging monocular depth and mask estimates to enable robust zero-shot adaptation to various real target domains. Despite being trained solely on synthetic data, our multi-hypothesis approach can even surpass the supervised state-of-the-art on the Scan2CAD dataset by 5.9% with 8 hypotheses.
PDF Project page: https://daoyig.github.io/DiffCAD/ Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PCursyPosMY


Simple Semantic-Aided Few-Shot Learning

Authors:Hai Zhang, Junzhe Xu, Shanlin Jiang, Zhenan He

Learning from a limited amount of data, namely Few-Shot Learning, stands out as a challenging computer vision task. Several works exploit semantics and design complicated semantic fusion mechanisms to compensate for rare representative features within restricted data. However, relying on naive semantics such as class names introduces biases due to their brevity, while acquiring extensive semantics from external knowledge takes a huge time and effort. This limitation severely constrains the potential of semantics in few-shot learning. In this paper, we design an automatic way called Semantic Evolution to generate high-quality semantics. The incorporation of high-quality semantics alleviates the need for complex network structures and learning algorithms used in previous works. Hence, we employ a simple two-layer network termed Semantic Alignment Network to transform semantics and visual features into robust class prototypes with rich discriminative features for few-shot classification. The experimental results show our framework outperforms all previous methods on five benchmarks, demonstrating a simple network with high-quality semantics can beat intricate multi-modal modules on few-shot classification tasks.


One-step Diffusion with Distribution Matching Distillation

Authors:Tianwei Yin, Michaël Gharbi, Richard Zhang, Eli Shechtman, Frédo Durand, William T. Freeman, Taesung Park

Diffusion models generate high-quality images but require dozens of forward passes. We introduce Distribution Matching Distillation (DMD), a procedure to transform a diffusion model into a one-step image generator with minimal impact on image quality. We enforce the one-step image generator match the diffusion model at distribution level, by minimizing an approximate KL divergence whose gradient can be expressed as the difference between 2 score functions, one of the target distribution and the other of the synthetic distribution being produced by our one-step generator. The score functions are parameterized as two diffusion models trained separately on each distribution. Combined with a simple regression loss matching the large-scale structure of the multi-step diffusion outputs, our method outperforms all published few-step diffusion approaches, reaching 2.62 FID on ImageNet 64x64 and 11.49 FID on zero-shot COCO-30k, comparable to Stable Diffusion but orders of magnitude faster. Utilizing FP16 inference, our model can generate images at 20 FPS on modern hardware.
PDF Project page: https://tianweiy.github.io/dmd/


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