2023-11-19 更新

Chain of Thought with Explicit Evidence Reasoning for Few-shot Relation Extraction

Authors:Xilai Ma, Jing Li, Min Zhang

Few-shot relation extraction involves identifying the type of relationship between two specific entities within a text, using a limited number of annotated samples. A variety of solutions to this problem have emerged by applying meta-learning and neural graph techniques which typically necessitate a training process for adaptation. Recently, the strategy of in-context learning has been demonstrating notable results without the need of training. Few studies have already utilized in-context learning for zero-shot information extraction. Unfortunately, the evidence for inference is either not considered or implicitly modeled during the construction of chain-of-thought prompts. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for few-shot relation extraction using large language models, named CoT-ER, chain-of-thought with explicit evidence reasoning. In particular, CoT-ER first induces large language models to generate evidences using task-specific and concept-level knowledge. Then these evidences are explicitly incorporated into chain-of-thought prompting for relation extraction. Experimental results demonstrate that our CoT-ER approach (with 0% training data) achieves competitive performance compared to the fully-supervised (with 100% training data) state-of-the-art approach on the FewRel1.0 and FewRel2.0 datasets.
PDF An error example is in Table 14 on Page 18. Need to carefully correct and evaluate the error


Dual-channel Prototype Network for few-shot Classification of Pathological Images

Authors:Hao Quan, Xinjia Li, Dayu Hu, Tianhang Nan, Xiaoyu Cui

In pathology, the rarity of certain diseases and the complexity in annotating pathological images significantly hinder the creation of extensive, high-quality datasets. This limitation impedes the progress of deep learning-assisted diagnostic systems in pathology. Consequently, it becomes imperative to devise a technology that can discern new disease categories from a minimal number of annotated examples. Such a technology would substantially advance deep learning models for rare diseases. Addressing this need, we introduce the Dual-channel Prototype Network (DCPN), rooted in the few-shot learning paradigm, to tackle the challenge of classifying pathological images with limited samples. DCPN augments the Pyramid Vision Transformer (PVT) framework for few-shot classification via self-supervised learning and integrates it with convolutional neural networks. This combination forms a dual-channel architecture that extracts multi-scale, highly precise pathological features. The approach enhances the versatility of prototype representations and elevates the efficacy of prototype networks in few-shot pathological image classification tasks. We evaluated DCPN using three publicly available pathological datasets, configuring small-sample classification tasks that mirror varying degrees of clinical scenario domain shifts. Our experimental findings robustly affirm DCPN’s superiority in few-shot pathological image classification, particularly in tasks within the same domain, where it achieves the benchmarks of supervised learning.


Multistage Collaborative Knowledge Distillation from Large Language Models

Authors:Jiachen Zhao, Wenlong Zhao, Andrew Drozdov, Benjamin Rozonoyer, Md Arafat Sultan, Jay-Yoon Lee, Mohit Iyyer, Andrew McCallum

We study semi-supervised sequence prediction tasks where labeled data are too scarce to effectively finetune a model and at the same time few-shot prompting of a large language model (LLM) has suboptimal performance. This happens when a task, such as parsing, is expensive to annotate and also unfamiliar to a pretrained LLM. In this paper, we present a discovery that student models distilled from a prompted LLM can often generalize better than their teacher on such tasks. Leveraging this finding, we propose a new distillation method, multistage collaborative knowledge distillation from an LLM (MCKD), for such tasks. MCKD first prompts an LLM using few-shot in-context learning to produce pseudolabels for unlabeled data. Then, at each stage of distillation, a pair of students are trained on disjoint partitions of the pseudolabeled data. Each student subsequently produces new and improved pseudolabels for the unseen partition to supervise the next round of student(s) with. We show the benefit of multistage cross-partition labeling on two constituency parsing tasks. On CRAFT biomedical parsing, 3-stage MCKD with 50 labeled examples matches the performance of supervised finetuning with 500 examples and outperforms the prompted LLM and vanilla KD by 7.5% and 3.7% parsing F1, respectively.


Combining Transfer Learning with In-context Learning using Blackbox LLMs for Zero-shot Knowledge Base Question Answering

Authors:Mayur Patidar, Avinash Singh, Riya Sawhney, Indrajit Bhattacharya, Mausam

We address the zero-shot transfer learning setting for the knowledge base question answering (KBQA) problem, where a large volume of labeled training data is available for the source domain, but no such labeled examples are available for the target domain. Transfer learning for KBQA makes use of large volumes of unlabeled data in the target in addition to the labeled data in the source. More recently, few-shot in-context learning using Black-box Large Language Models (BLLMs) has been adapted for KBQA without considering any source domain data. In this work, we show how to meaningfully combine these two paradigms for KBQA so that their benefits add up. Specifically, we preserve the two stage retrieve-then-generate pipeline of supervised KBQA and introduce interaction between in-context learning using BLLMs and transfer learning from the source for both stages. In addition, we propose execution-guided self-refinement using BLLMs, decoupled from the transfer setting. With the help of experiments using benchmark datasets GrailQA as the source and WebQSP as the target, we show that the proposed combination brings significant improvements to both stages and also outperforms by a large margin state-of-the-art supervised KBQA models trained on the source. We also show that in the in-domain setting, the proposed BLLM augmentation significantly outperforms state-of-the-art supervised models, when the volume of labeled data is limited, and also outperforms these marginally even when using the entire large training dataset.


Identifying Self-Disclosures of Use, Misuse and Addiction in Community-based Social Media Posts

Authors:Chenghao Yang, Tuhin Chakrabarty, Karli R Hochstatter, Melissa N Slavin, Nabila El-Bassel, Smaranda Muresan

In the last decade, the United States has lost more than 500,000 people from an overdose involving prescription and illicit opioids (https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/epidemic/index.html) making it a national public health emergency (USDHHS, 2017). To more effectively prevent unintentional opioid overdoses, medical practitioners require robust and timely tools that can effectively identify at-risk patients. Community-based social media platforms such as Reddit allow self-disclosure for users to discuss otherwise sensitive drug-related behaviors, often acting as indicators for opioid use disorder. Towards this, we present a moderate size corpus of 2500 opioid-related posts from various subreddits spanning 6 different phases of opioid use: Medical Use, Misuse, Addiction, Recovery, Relapse, Not Using. For every post, we annotate span-level extractive explanations and crucially study their role both in annotation quality and model development. We evaluate several state-of-the-art models in a supervised, few-shot, or zero-shot setting. Experimental results and error analysis show that identifying the phases of opioid use disorder is highly contextual and challenging. However, we find that using explanations during modeling leads to a significant boost in classification accuracy demonstrating their beneficial role in a high-stakes domain such as studying the opioid use disorder continuum. The dataset will be made available for research on Github in the formal version.
PDF Work in progress


CLEAN-EVAL: Clean Evaluation on Contaminated Large Language Models

Authors:Wenhong Zhu, Hongkun Hao, Zhiwei He, Yunze Song, Yumeng Zhang, Hanxu Hu, Yiran Wei, Rui Wang, Hongyuan Lu

We are currently in an era of fierce competition among various large language models (LLMs) continuously pushing the boundaries of benchmark performance. However, genuinely assessing the capabilities of these LLMs has become a challenging and critical issue due to potential data contamination, and it wastes dozens of time and effort for researchers and engineers to download and try those contaminated models. To save our precious time, we propose a novel and useful method, Clean-Eval, which mitigates the issue of data contamination and evaluates the LLMs in a cleaner manner. Clean-Eval employs an LLM to paraphrase and back-translate the contaminated data into a candidate set, generating expressions with the same meaning but in different surface forms. A semantic detector is then used to filter the generated low-quality samples to narrow down this candidate set. The best candidate is finally selected from this set based on the BLEURT score. According to human assessment, this best candidate is semantically similar to the original contamination data but expressed differently. All candidates can form a new benchmark to evaluate the model. Our experiments illustrate that Clean-Eval substantially restores the actual evaluation results on contaminated LLMs under both few-shot learning and fine-tuning scenarios.


DIFFNAT: Improving Diffusion Image Quality Using Natural Image Statistics

Authors:Aniket Roy, Maiterya Suin, Anshul Shah, Ketul Shah, Jiang Liu, Rama Chellappa

Diffusion models have advanced generative AI significantly in terms of editing and creating naturalistic images. However, efficiently improving generated image quality is still of paramount interest. In this context, we propose a generic “naturalness” preserving loss function, viz., kurtosis concentration (KC) loss, which can be readily applied to any standard diffusion model pipeline to elevate the image quality. Our motivation stems from the projected kurtosis concentration property of natural images, which states that natural images have nearly constant kurtosis values across different band-pass versions of the image. To retain the “naturalness” of the generated images, we enforce reducing the gap between the highest and lowest kurtosis values across the band-pass versions (e.g., Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)) of images. Note that our approach does not require any additional guidance like classifier or classifier-free guidance to improve the image quality. We validate the proposed approach for three diverse tasks, viz., (1) personalized few-shot finetuning using text guidance, (2) unconditional image generation, and (3) image super-resolution. Integrating the proposed KC loss has improved the perceptual quality across all these tasks in terms of both FID, MUSIQ score, and user evaluation.


More Samples or More Prompt Inputs? Exploring Effective In-Context Sampling for LLM Few-Shot Prompt Engineering

Authors:Bingsheng Yao, Guiming Chen, Ruishi Zou, Yuxuan Lu, Jiachen Li, Shao Zhang, Sijia Liu, James Hendler, Dakuo Wang

While most existing works on LLM prompt-engineering focus only on how to select a better set of data samples inside one single prompt input (In-Context Learning or ICL), why can’t we design and leverage multiple prompt inputs together to further improve the LLM performance? In this work, we propose In-Context Sampling (ICS), a low-resource LLM prompt-engineering technique to produce the most confident prediction results by optimizing the construction of multiple ICL prompt inputs. Extensive experiments with two SOTA LLMs (FlanT5-XL and Mistral-7B) on three NLI datasets (e-SNLI, Multi-NLI, and ANLI) illustrate that ICS can consistently enhance LLM’s prediction performance and confidence. An ablation study suggests that a diversity-based ICS strategy may further improve LLM’s performance, which sheds light on a new yet promising future research direction.


X-Mark: Towards Lossless Watermarking Through Lexical Redundancy

Authors:Liang Chen, Yatao Bian, Yang Deng, Shuaiyi Li, Bingzhe Wu, Peilin Zhao, Kam-fai Wong

Text watermarking has emerged as an important technique for detecting machine-generated text. However, existing methods can severely degrade text quality due to arbitrary vocabulary partitioning, which disrupts the language model’s expressiveness and impedes textual coherence. To mitigate this, we introduce XMark, a novel approach that capitalizes on text redundancy within the lexical space. Specifically, XMark incorporates a mutually exclusive rule for synonyms during the language model decoding process, thereby integrating prior knowledge into vocabulary partitioning and preserving the capabilities of language generation. We present theoretical analyses and empirical evidence demonstrating that XMark substantially enhances text generation fluency while maintaining watermark detectability. Furthermore, we investigate watermarking’s impact on the emergent abilities of large language models, including zero-shot and few-shot knowledge recall, logical reasoning, and instruction following. Our comprehensive experiments confirm that XMark consistently outperforms existing methods in retaining these crucial capabilities of LLMs.
PDF Work in Progress


SQLNet: Scale-Modulated Query and Localization Network for Few-Shot Class-Agnostic Counting

Authors:Hefeng Wu, Yandong Chen, Lingbo Liu, Tianshui Chen, Keze Wang, Liang Lin

The class-agnostic counting (CAC) task has recently been proposed to solve the problem of counting all objects of an arbitrary class with several exemplars given in the input image. To address this challenging task, existing leading methods all resort to density map regression, which renders them impractical for downstream tasks that require object locations and restricts their ability to well explore the scale information of exemplars for supervision. To address the limitations, we propose a novel localization-based CAC approach, termed Scale-modulated Query and Localization Network (SQLNet). It fully explores the scales of exemplars in both the query and localization stages and achieves effective counting by accurately locating each object and predicting its approximate size. Specifically, during the query stage, rich discriminative representations of the target class are acquired by the Hierarchical Exemplars Collaborative Enhancement (HECE) module from the few exemplars through multi-scale exemplar cooperation with equifrequent size prompt embedding. These representations are then fed into the Exemplars-Unified Query Correlation (EUQC) module to interact with the query features in a unified manner and produce the correlated query tensor. In the localization stage, the Scale-aware Multi-head Localization (SAML) module utilizes the query tensor to predict the confidence, location, and size of each potential object. Moreover, a scale-aware localization loss is introduced, which exploits flexible location associations and exemplar scales for supervision to optimize the model performance. Extensive experiments demonstrate that SQLNet outperforms state-of-the-art methods on popular CAC benchmarks, achieving excellent performance not only in counting accuracy but also in localization and bounding box generation. Our codes will be available at https://github.com/HCPLab-SYSU/SQLNet
PDF 13 pages


文章作者: 木子已
版权声明: 本博客所有文章除特別声明外,均采用 CC BY 4.0 许可协议。转载请注明来源 木子已 !