Authors:Xilai Ma, Jing Li, Min Zhang
Few-shot relation extraction involves identifying the type of relationship between two specific entities within a text, using a limited number of annotated samples. A variety of solutions to this problem have emerged by applying meta-learning and neural graph techniques which typically necessitate a training process for adaptation. Recently, the strategy of in-context learning has been demonstrating notable results without the need of training. Few studies have already utilized in-context learning for zero-shot information extraction. Unfortunately, the evidence for inference is either not considered or implicitly modeled during the construction of chain-of-thought prompts. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for few-shot relation extraction using large language models, named CoT-ER, chain-of-thought with explicit evidence reasoning. In particular, CoT-ER first induces large language models to generate evidences using task-specific and concept-level knowledge. Then these evidences are explicitly incorporated into chain-of-thought prompting for relation extraction. Experimental results demonstrate that our CoT-ER approach (with 0% training data) achieves competitive performance compared to the fully-supervised (with 100% training data) state-of-the-art approach on the FewRel1.0 and FewRel2.0 datasets.
PDF Findings of EMNLP 2023
Authors:Jiazhan Feng, Ruochen Xu, Junheng Hao, Hiteshi Sharma, Yelong Shen, Dongyan Zhao, Weizhu Chen
Logical reasoning is a fundamental aspect of human intelligence and a key component of tasks like problem-solving and decision-making. Recent advancements have enabled Large Language Models (LLMs) to potentially exhibit reasoning capabilities, but complex logical reasoning remains a challenge. The state-of-the-art, solver-augmented language models, use LLMs to parse natural language logical questions into symbolic representations first and then adopt external logical solvers to take in the symbolic representations and output the answers. Despite their impressive performance, any parsing errors will inevitably result in the failure of the execution of the external logical solver and no answer to the logical questions. In this paper, we introduce LoGiPT, a novel language model that directly emulates the reasoning processes of logical solvers and bypasses the parsing errors by learning to strict adherence to solver syntax and grammar. LoGiPT is fine-tuned on a newly constructed instruction-tuning dataset derived from revealing and refining the invisible reasoning process of deductive solvers. Experimental results on two public deductive reasoning datasets demonstrate that LoGiPT outperforms state-of-the-art solver-augmented LMs and few-shot prompting methods on competitive LLMs like ChatGPT or GPT-4.
Authors:Yutao Tang, Benjamin Bejar, Rene Vidal
Recent work on action recognition leverages 3D features and textual information to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, most of the current few-shot action recognition methods still rely on 2D frame-level representations, often require additional components to model temporal relations, and employ complex distance functions to achieve accurate alignment of these representations. In addition, existing methods struggle to effectively integrate textual semantics, some resorting to concatenation or addition of textual and visual features, and some using text merely as an additional supervision without truly achieving feature fusion and information transfer from different modalities. In this work, we propose a simple yet effective Semantic-Aware Few-Shot Action Recognition (SAFSAR) model to address these issues. We show that directly leveraging a 3D feature extractor combined with an effective feature-fusion scheme, and a simple cosine similarity for classification can yield better performance without the need of extra components for temporal modeling or complex distance functions. We introduce an innovative scheme to encode the textual semantics into the video representation which adaptively fuses features from text and video, and encourages the visual encoder to extract more semantically consistent features. In this scheme, SAFSAR achieves alignment and fusion in a compact way. Experiments on five challenging few-shot action recognition benchmarks under various settings demonstrate that the proposed SAFSAR model significantly improves the state-of-the-art performance.
Relation Extraction in underexplored biomedical domains: A diversity-optimised sampling and synthetic data generation approach
Authors:Maxime Delmas, Magdalena Wysocka, André Freitas
The sparsity of labelled data is an obstacle to the development of Relation Extraction models and the completion of databases in various biomedical areas. While being of high interest in drug-discovery, the natural-products literature, reporting the identification of potential bioactive compounds from organisms, is a concrete example of such an overlooked topic. To mark the start of this new task, we created the first curated evaluation dataset and extracted literature items from the LOTUS database to build training sets. To this end, we developed a new sampler inspired by diversity metrics in ecology, named Greedy Maximum Entropy sampler, or GME-sampler (https://github.com/idiap/gme-sampler). The strategic optimization of both balance and diversity of the selected items in the evaluation set is important given the resource-intensive nature of manual curation. After quantifying the noise in the training set, in the form of discrepancies between the input abstracts text and the expected output labels, we explored different strategies accordingly. Framing the task as an end-to-end Relation Extraction, we evaluated the performance of standard fine-tuning as a generative task and few-shot learning with open Large Language Models (LLaMA 7B-65B). In addition to their evaluation in few-shot settings, we explore the potential of open Large Language Models (Vicuna-13B) as synthetic data generator and propose a new workflow for this purpose. All evaluated models exhibited substantial improvements when fine-tuned on synthetic abstracts rather than the original noisy data. We provide our best performing (f1-score=59.0) BioGPT-Large model for end-to-end RE of natural-products relationships along with all the generated synthetic data and the evaluation dataset. See more details at https://github.com/idiap/abroad-re.
Heuristics-Driven Link-of-Analogy Prompting: Enhancing Large Language Models for Document-Level Event Argument Extraction
Authors:Hanzhang Zhou, Junlang Qian, Zijian Feng, Hui Lu, Zixiao Zhu, Kezhi Mao
In this study, we investigate in-context learning (ICL) in document-level event argument extraction (EAE). The paper identifies key challenges in this problem, including example selection, context length limitation, abundance of event types, and the limitation of Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompting in non-reasoning tasks. To address these challenges, we introduce the Heuristic-Driven Link-of-Analogy (HD-LoA) prompting method. Specifically, we hypothesize and validate that LLMs learn task-specific heuristics from demonstrations via ICL. Building upon this hypothesis, we introduce an explicit heuristic-driven demonstration construction approach, which transforms the haphazard example selection process into a methodical method that emphasizes task heuristics. Additionally, inspired by the analogical reasoning of human, we propose the link-of-analogy prompting, which enables LLMs to process new situations by drawing analogies to known situations, enhancing their adaptability. Extensive experiments show that our method outperforms the existing prompting methods and few-shot supervised learning methods, exhibiting F1 score improvements of 4.53% and 9.38% on the document-level EAE dataset. Furthermore, when applied to sentiment analysis and natural language inference tasks, the HD-LoA prompting achieves accuracy gains of 2.87% and 2.63%, indicating its effectiveness across different tasks.
Authors:Chao Xu, Yu Yang, Rongzhao Wang, Guan Wang, Bojia Lin
Multi-Stage Classifier (MSC) - several classifiers working sequentially in an arranged order and classification decision is partially made at each step - is widely used in industrial applications for various resource limitation reasons. The classifiers of a multi-stage process are usually Neural Network (NN) models trained independently or in their inference order without considering the signals from the latter stages. Aimed at two-stage binary classification process, the most common type of MSC, we propose a novel training framework, named Feedback Training. The classifiers are trained in an order reverse to their actual working order, and the classifier at the later stage is used to guide the training of initial-stage classifier via a sample weighting method. We experimentally show the efficacy of our proposed approach, and its great superiority under the scenario of few-shot training.
Authors:Sachin Kumar, Chan Young Park, Yulia Tsvetkov
Language model (LM) prompting—a popular paradigm for solving NLP tasks—has been shown to be susceptible to miscalibration and brittleness to slight prompt variations, caused by its discriminative prompting approach, i.e., predicting the label given the input. To address these issues, we propose Gen-Z—a generative prompting framework for zero-shot text classification. GEN-Z is generative, as it measures the LM likelihood of input text, conditioned on natural language descriptions of labels. The framework is multivariate, as label descriptions allow us to seamlessly integrate additional contextual information about the labels to improve task performance. On various standard classification benchmarks, with six open-source LM families, we show that zero-shot classification with simple contextualization of the data source of the evaluation set consistently outperforms both zero-shot and few-shot baselines while improving robustness to prompt variations. Further, our approach enables personalizing classification in a zero-shot manner by incorporating author, subject, or reader information in the label descriptions.
Few Shot Learning for the Classification of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Images of Head and Neck Tumors
Authors:Marc Aubreville, Zhaoya Pan, Matti Sievert, Jonas Ammeling, Jonathan Ganz, Nicolai Oetter, Florian Stelzle, Ann-Kathrin Frenken, Katharina Breininger, Miguel Goncalves
The surgical removal of head and neck tumors requires safe margins, which are usually confirmed intraoperatively by means of frozen sections. This method is, in itself, an oversampling procedure, which has a relatively low sensitivity compared to the definitive tissue analysis on paraffin-embedded sections. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an in-vivo imaging technique that has shown its potential in the live optical biopsy of tissue. An automated analysis of this notoriously difficult to interpret modality would help surgeons. However, the images of CLE show a wide variability of patterns, caused both by individual factors but also, and most strongly, by the anatomical structures of the imaged tissue, making it a challenging pattern recognition task. In this work, we evaluate four popular few shot learning (FSL) methods towards their capability of generalizing to unseen anatomical domains in CLE images. We evaluate this on images of sinunasal tumors (SNT) from five patients and on images of the vocal folds (VF) from 11 patients using a cross-validation scheme. The best respective approach reached a median accuracy of 79.6% on the rather homogeneous VF dataset, but only of 61.6% for the highly diverse SNT dataset. Our results indicate that FSL on CLE images is viable, but strongly affected by the number of patients, as well as the diversity of anatomical patterns.
PDF 6 pages
Authors:Yunxin Li, Longyue Wang, Baotian Hu, Xinyu Chen, Wanqi Zhong, Chenyang Lyu, Min Zhang
The emergence of multimodal large models (MLMs) has significantly advanced the field of visual understanding, offering remarkable capabilities in the realm of visual question answering (VQA). Yet, the true challenge lies in the domain of knowledge-intensive VQA tasks, which necessitate not just recognition of visual elements, but also a deep comprehension of the visual information in conjunction with a vast repository of learned knowledge. To uncover such capabilities of MLMs, particularly the newly introduced GPT-4V, we provide an in-depth evaluation from three perspectives: 1) Commonsense Knowledge, which assesses how well models can understand visual cues and connect to general knowledge; 2) Fine-grained World Knowledge, which tests the model’s skill in reasoning out specific knowledge from images, showcasing their proficiency across various specialized fields; 3) Comprehensive Knowledge with Decision-making Rationales, which examines model’s capability to provide logical explanations for its inference, facilitating a deeper analysis from the interpretability perspective. Extensive experiments indicate that GPT-4V achieves SOTA performance on above three tasks. Interestingly, we find that: a) GPT-4V demonstrates enhanced reasoning and explanation when using composite images as few-shot; b) GPT-4V produces severe hallucinations when dealing with world knowledge, highlighting the future need for advancements in this research direction.
PDF 18 pages, 13pages; working in progress