Authors:Yifei Zhang, Hao Zhu, Zixing Song, Piotr Koniusz, Irwin King
Although augmentations (e.g., perturbation of graph edges, image crops) boost the efficiency of Contrastive Learning (CL), feature level augmentation is another plausible, complementary yet not well researched strategy. Thus, we present a novel spectral feature argumentation for contrastive learning on graphs (and images). To this end, for each data view, we estimate a low-rank approximation per feature map and subtract that approximation from the map to obtain its complement. This is achieved by the proposed herein incomplete power iteration, a non-standard power iteration regime which enjoys two valuable byproducts (under mere one or two iterations): (i) it partially balances spectrum of the feature map, and (ii) it injects the noise into rebalanced singular values of the feature map (spectral augmentation). For two views, we align these rebalanced feature maps as such an improved alignment step can focus more on less dominant singular values of matrices of both views, whereas the spectral augmentation does not affect the spectral angle alignment (singular vectors are not perturbed). We derive the analytical form for: (i) the incomplete power iteration to capture its spectrum-balancing effect, and (ii) the variance of singular values augmented implicitly by the noise. We also show that the spectral augmentation improves the generalization bound. Experiments on graph/image datasets show that our spectral feature augmentation outperforms baselines, and is complementary with other augmentation strategies and compatible with various contrastive losses.
PDF This paper has been published with the Thirty-Seventh AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2023)
Authors:Fangxun Shu, Biaolong Chen, Yue Liao, Shuwen Xiao, Wenyu Sun, Xiaobo Li, Yousong Zhu, Jinqiao Wang, Si Liu
We present a simple yet effective end-to-end Video-language Pre-training (VidLP) framework, Masked Contrastive Video-language Pretraining (MAC), for video-text retrieval tasks. Our MAC aims to reduce video representation’s spatial and temporal redundancy in the VidLP model by a mask sampling mechanism to improve pre-training efficiency. Comparing conventional temporal sparse sampling, we propose to randomly mask a high ratio of spatial regions and only feed visible regions into the encoder as sparse spatial sampling. Similarly, we adopt the mask sampling technique for text inputs for consistency. Instead of blindly applying the mask-then-prediction paradigm from MAE, we propose a masked-then-alignment paradigm for efficient video-text alignment. The motivation is that video-text retrieval tasks rely on high-level alignment rather than low-level reconstruction, and multimodal alignment with masked modeling encourages the model to learn a robust and general multimodal representation from incomplete and unstable inputs. Coupling these designs enables efficient end-to-end pre-training: reduce FLOPs (60% off), accelerate pre-training (by 3x), and improve performance. Our MAC achieves state-of-the-art results on various video-text retrieval datasets, including MSR-VTT, DiDeMo, and ActivityNet. Our approach is omnivorous to input modalities. With minimal modifications, we achieve competitive results on image-text retrieval tasks.
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