Authors:Alperen Kantarcı, Ferda Ofli, Muhammad Imran, Hazım Kemal Ekenel
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (COVID-19) spread so quickly around the world that many countries had to set mandatory face mask rules in public areas to reduce the transmission of the virus. To monitor public adherence, researchers aimed to rapidly develop efficient systems that can detect faces with masks automatically. However, the lack of representative and novel datasets proved to be the biggest challenge. Early attempts to collect face mask datasets did not account for potential race, gender, and age biases. Therefore, the resulting models show inherent biases toward specific race groups, such as Asian or Caucasian. In this work, we present a novel face mask detection dataset that contains images posted on Twitter during the pandemic from around the world. Unlike previous datasets, the proposed Bias-Aware Face Mask Detection (BAFMD) dataset contains more images from underrepresented race and age groups to mitigate the problem for the face mask detection task. We perform experiments to investigate potential biases in widely used face mask detection datasets and illustrate that the BAFMD dataset yields models with better performance and generalization ability. The dataset is publicly available at https://github.com/Alpkant/BAFMD.
PDF submitted to Pattern Recognition Letters, 7 pages, 3 figures
Authors:Juni Kim, Zhikang Dong, Eric Guan, Judah Rosenthal, Shi Fu, Miriam Rafailovich, Pawel Polak
We provide a new non-invasive, easy-to-scale for large amounts of subjects and a remotely accessible method for (hidden) emotion detection from videos of human faces. Our approach combines face manifold detection for accurate location of the face in the video with local face manifold embedding to create a common domain for the measurements of muscle micro-movements that is invariant to the movement of the subject in the video. In the next step, we employ the Digital Image Speckle Correlation (DISC) and the optical flow algorithm to compute the pattern of micro-movements in the face. The corresponding vector field is mapped back to the original space and superimposed on the original frames of the videos. Hence, the resulting videos include additional information about the direction of the movement of the muscles in the face. We take the publicly available CK++ dataset of visible emotions and add to it videos of the same format but with hidden emotions. We process all the videos using our micro-movement detection and use the results to train a state-of-the-art network for emotions classification from videos — Frame Attention Network (FAN). Although the original FAN model achieves very high out-of-sample performance on the original CK++ videos, it does not perform so well on hidden emotions videos. The performance improves significantly when the model is trained and tested on videos with the vector fields of muscle movements. Intuitively, the corresponding arrows serve as edges in the image that are easily captured by the convolutions filters in the FAN network.