2023-11-20 更新

Leveraging Function Space Aggregation for Federated Learning at Scale

Authors:Nikita Dhawan, Nicole Mitchell, Zachary Charles, Zachary Garrett, Gintare Karolina Dziugaite

The federated learning paradigm has motivated the development of methods for aggregating multiple client updates into a global server model, without sharing client data. Many federated learning algorithms, including the canonical Federated Averaging (FedAvg), take a direct (possibly weighted) average of the client parameter updates, motivated by results in distributed optimization. In this work, we adopt a function space perspective and propose a new algorithm, FedFish, that aggregates local approximations to the functions learned by clients, using an estimate based on their Fisher information. We evaluate FedFish on realistic, large-scale cross-device benchmarks. While the performance of FedAvg can suffer as client models drift further apart, we demonstrate that FedFish is more robust to longer local training. Our evaluation across several settings in image and language benchmarks shows that FedFish outperforms FedAvg as local training epochs increase. Further, FedFish results in global networks that are more amenable to efficient personalization via local fine-tuning on the same or shifted data distributions. For instance, federated pretraining on the C4 dataset, followed by few-shot personalization on Stack Overflow, results in a 7% improvement in next-token prediction by FedFish over FedAvg.
PDF 20 pages, 7 figures


Countering Misinformation via Emotional Response Generation

Authors:Daniel Russo, Shane Peter Kaszefski-Yaschuk, Jacopo Staiano, Marco Guerini

The proliferation of misinformation on social media platforms (SMPs) poses a significant danger to public health, social cohesion and ultimately democracy. Previous research has shown how social correction can be an effective way to curb misinformation, by engaging directly in a constructive dialogue with users who spread — often in good faith — misleading messages. Although professional fact-checkers are crucial to debunking viral claims, they usually do not engage in conversations on social media. Thereby, significant effort has been made to automate the use of fact-checker material in social correction; however, no previous work has tried to integrate it with the style and pragmatics that are commonly employed in social media communication. To fill this gap, we present VerMouth, the first large-scale dataset comprising roughly 12 thousand claim-response pairs (linked to debunking articles), accounting for both SMP-style and basic emotions, two factors which have a significant role in misinformation credibility and spreading. To collect this dataset we used a technique based on an author-reviewer pipeline, which efficiently combines LLMs and human annotators to obtain high-quality data. We also provide comprehensive experiments showing how models trained on our proposed dataset have significant improvements in terms of output quality and generalization capabilities.
PDF Accepted to EMNLP 2023 main conference


Hashing it Out: Predicting Unhealthy Conversations on Twitter

Authors:Steven Leung, Filippos Papapolyzos

Personal attacks in the context of social media conversations often lead to fast-paced derailment, leading to even more harmful exchanges being made. State-of-the-art systems for the detection of such conversational derailment often make use of deep learning approaches for prediction purposes. In this paper, we show that an Attention-based BERT architecture, pre-trained on a large Twitter corpus and fine-tuned on our task, is efficient and effective in making such predictions. This model shows clear advantages in performance to the existing LSTM model we use as a baseline. Additionally, we show that this impressive performance can be attained through fine-tuning on a relatively small, novel dataset, particularly after mitigating overfitting issues through synthetic oversampling techniques. By introducing the first transformer based model for forecasting conversational events on Twitter, this work lays the foundation for a practical tool to encourage better interactions on one of the most ubiquitous social media platforms.
PDF 7 pages, 3 figures, academic


Camels in a Changing Climate: Enhancing LM Adaptation with Tulu 2

Authors:Hamish Ivison, Yizhong Wang, Valentina Pyatkin, Nathan Lambert, Matthew Peters, Pradeep Dasigi, Joel Jang, David Wadden, Noah A. Smith, Iz Beltagy, Hannaneh Hajishirzi

Since the release of T\”ULU [Wang et al., 2023b], open resources for instruction tuning have developed quickly, from better base models to new finetuning techniques. We test and incorporate a number of these advances into T\”ULU, resulting in T\”ULU 2, a suite of improved T\”ULU models for advancing the understanding and best practices of adapting pretrained language models to downstream tasks and user preferences. Concretely, we release: (1) T\”ULU-V2-mix, an improved collection of high-quality instruction datasets; (2) T\”ULU 2, LLAMA-2 models finetuned on the V2 mixture; (3) T\”ULU 2+DPO, T\”ULU 2 models trained with direct preference optimization (DPO), including the largest DPO-trained model to date (T\”ULU 2+DPO 70B); (4) CODE T\”ULU 2, CODE LLAMA models finetuned on our V2 mix that outperform CODE LLAMA and its instruction-tuned variant, CODE LLAMA-Instruct. Our evaluation from multiple perspectives shows that the T\”ULU 2 suite achieves state-of-the-art performance among open models and matches or exceeds the performance of GPT-3.5-turbo-0301 on several benchmarks. We release all the checkpoints, data, training and evaluation code to facilitate future open efforts on adapting large language models.
PDF technical report


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