Neural Architecture Search: Insights from 1000 Papers
Authors:Colin White, Mahmoud Safari, Rhea Sukthanker, Binxin Ru, Thomas Elsken, Arber Zela, Debadeepta Dey, Frank Hutter
In the past decade, advances in deep learning have resulted in breakthroughs in a variety of areas, including computer vision, natural language understanding, speech recognition, and reinforcement learning. Specialized, high-performing neural architectures are crucial to the success of deep learning in these areas. Neural architecture search (NAS), the process of automating the design of neural architectures for a given task, is an inevitable next step in automating machine learning and has already outpaced the best human-designed architectures on many tasks. In the past few years, research in NAS has been progressing rapidly, with over 1000 papers released since 2020 (Deng and Lindauer, 2021). In this survey, we provide an organized and comprehensive guide to neural architecture search. We give a taxonomy of search spaces, algorithms, and speedup techniques, and we discuss resources such as benchmarks, best practices, other surveys, and open-source libraries.
DeFT-AN: Dense Frequency-Time Attentive Network for Multichannel Speech Enhancement
Authors:Dongheon Lee, Jung-Woo Choi
In this study, we propose a dense frequency-time attentive network (DeFT-AN) for multichannel speech enhancement. DeFT-AN is a mask estimation network that predicts a complex spectral masking pattern for suppressing the noise and reverberation embedded in the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) of an input signal. The proposed mask estimation network incorporates three different types of blocks for aggregating information in the spatial, spectral, and temporal dimensions. It utilizes a spectral transformer with a modified feed-forward network and a temporal conformer with sequential dilated convolutions. The use of dense blocks and transformers dedicated to the three different characteristics of audio signals enables more comprehensive enhancement in noisy and reverberant environments. The remarkable performance of DeFT-AN over state-of-the-art multichannel models is demonstrated based on two popular noisy and reverberant datasets in terms of various metrics for speech quality and intelligibility.
PDF 5 pages, 2 figures, 3 tables
ViDeBERTa: A powerful pre-trained language model for Vietnamese
Authors:Cong Dao Tran, Nhut Huy Pham, Anh Nguyen, Truong Son Hy, Tu Vu
This paper presents ViDeBERTa, a new pre-trained monolingual language model for Vietnamese, with three versions - ViDeBERTa_xsmall, ViDeBERTa_base, and ViDeBERTa_large, which are pre-trained on a large-scale corpus of high-quality and diverse Vietnamese texts using DeBERTa architecture. Although many successful pre-trained language models based on Transformer have been widely proposed for the English language, there are still few pre-trained models for Vietnamese, a low-resource language, that perform good results on downstream tasks, especially Question answering. We fine-tune and evaluate our model on three important natural language downstream tasks, Part-of-speech tagging, Named-entity recognition, and Question answering. The empirical results demonstrate that ViDeBERTa with far fewer parameters surpasses the previous state-of-the-art models on multiple Vietnamese-specific natural language understanding tasks. Notably, ViDeBERTa_base with 86M parameters, which is only about 23% of PhoBERT_large with 370M parameters, still performs the same or better results than the previous state-of-the-art model. Our ViDeBERTa models are available at: https://github.com/HySonLab/ViDeBERTa.
Fillers in Spoken Language Understanding: Computational and Psycholinguistic Perspectives
Authors:Tanvi Dinkar, Chloé Clavel, Ioana Vasilescu
Disfluencies (i.e. interruptions in the regular flow of speech), are ubiquitous to spoken discourse. Fillers (“uh”, “um”) are disfluencies that occur the most frequently compared to other kinds of disfluencies. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, there isn’t a resource that brings together the research perspectives influencing Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) on these speech events. This aim of this article is to synthesise a breadth of perspectives in a holistic way; i.e. from considering underlying (psycho)linguistic theory, to their annotation and consideration in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) and SLU systems, to lastly, their study from a generation standpoint. This article aims to present the perspectives in an approachable way to the SLU and Conversational AI community, and discuss moving forward, what we believe are the trends and challenges in each area.
PDF To appear in TAL Journal
Separate And Diffuse: Using a Pretrained Diffusion Model for Improving Source Separation
Authors:Shahar Lutati, Eliya Nachmani, Lior Wolf
The problem of speech separation, also known as the cocktail party problem, refers to the task of isolating a single speech signal from a mixture of speech signals. Previous work on source separation derived an upper bound for the source separation task in the domain of human speech. This bound is derived for deterministic models. Recent advancements in generative models challenge this bound. We show how the upper bound can be generalized to the case of random generative models. Applying a diffusion model Vocoder that was pretrained to model single-speaker voices on the output of a deterministic separation model leads to state-of-the-art separation results. It is shown that this requires one to combine the output of the separation model with that of the diffusion model. In our method, a linear combination is performed, in the frequency domain, using weights that are inferred by a learned model. We show state-of-the-art results on 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 speakers on multiple benchmarks. In particular, for two speakers, our method is able to surpass what was previously considered the upper performance bound.
Phoneme-Level BERT for Enhanced Prosody of Text-to-Speech with Grapheme Predictions
Authors:Yinghao Aaron Li, Cong Han, Xilin Jiang, Nima Mesgarani
Large-scale pre-trained language models have been shown to be helpful in improving the naturalness of text-to-speech (TTS) models by enabling them to produce more naturalistic prosodic patterns. However, these models are usually word-level or sup-phoneme-level and jointly trained with phonemes, making them inefficient for the downstream TTS task where only phonemes are needed. In this work, we propose a phoneme-level BERT (PL-BERT) with a pretext task of predicting the corresponding graphemes along with the regular masked phoneme predictions. Subjective evaluations show that our phoneme-level BERT encoder has significantly improved the mean opinion scores (MOS) of rated naturalness of synthesized speech compared with the state-of-the-art (SOTA) StyleTTS baseline on out-of-distribution (OOD) texts.