Domain Adaptation

2023-01-18 更新

Modeling Uncertain Feature Representation for Domain Generalization

Authors:Xiaotong Li, Zixuan Hu, Jun Liu, Yixiao Ge, Yongxing Dai, Ling-Yu Duan

Though deep neural networks have achieved impressive success on various vision tasks, obvious performance degradation still exists when models are tested in out-of-distribution scenarios. In addressing this limitation, we ponder that the feature statistics (mean and standard deviation), which carry the domain characteristics of the training data, can be properly manipulated to improve the generalization ability of deep learning models. Existing methods commonly consider feature statistics as deterministic values measured from the learned features and do not explicitly model the uncertain statistics discrepancy caused by potential domain shifts during testing. In this paper, we improve the network generalization ability by modeling domain shifts with uncertainty (DSU), i.e., characterizing the feature statistics as uncertain distributions during training. Specifically, we hypothesize that the feature statistic, after considering the potential uncertainties, follows a multivariate Gaussian distribution. During inference, we propose an instance-wise adaptation strategy that can adaptively deal with the unforeseeable shift and further enhance the generalization ability of the trained model with negligible additional cost. We also conduct theoretical analysis on the aspects of generalization error bound and the implicit regularization effect, showing the efficacy of our method. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method consistently improves the network generalization ability on multiple vision tasks, including image classification, semantic segmentation, instance retrieval, and pose estimation. Our methods are simple yet effective and can be readily integrated into networks without additional trainable parameters or loss constraints. Code will be released in
PDF This work is an extension of our ICLR 2022 paper [arXiv:2202.03958]


Rethinking Precision of Pseudo Label: Test-Time Adaptation via Complementary Learning

Authors:Jiayi Han, Longbin Zeng, Liang Du, Weiyang Ding, Jianfeng Feng

In this work, we propose a novel complementary learning approach to enhance test-time adaptation (TTA), which has been proven to exhibit good performance on testing data with distribution shifts such as corruptions. In test-time adaptation tasks, information from the source domain is typically unavailable and the model has to be optimized without supervision for test-time samples. Hence, usual methods assign labels for unannotated data with the prediction by a well-trained source model in an unsupervised learning framework. Previous studies have employed unsupervised objectives, such as the entropy of model predictions, as optimization targets to effectively learn features for test-time samples. However, the performance of the model is easily compromised by the quality of pseudo-labels, since inaccuracies in pseudo-labels introduce noise to the model. Therefore, we propose to leverage the “less probable categories” to decrease the risk of incorrect pseudo-labeling. The complementary label is introduced to designate these categories. We highlight that the risk function of complementary labels agrees with their Vanilla loss formula under the conventional true label distribution. Experiments show that the proposed learning algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance on different datasets and experiment settings.


NCP: Neural Correspondence Prior for Effective Unsupervised Shape Matching

Authors:Souhaib Attaiki, Maks Ovsjanikov

We present Neural Correspondence Prior (NCP), a new paradigm for computing correspondences between 3D shapes. Our approach is fully unsupervised and can lead to high-quality correspondences even in challenging cases such as sparse point clouds or non-isometric meshes, where current methods fail. Our first key observation is that, in line with neural priors observed in other domains, recent network architectures on 3D data, even without training, tend to produce pointwise features that induce plausible maps between rigid or non-rigid shapes. Secondly, we show that given a noisy map as input, training a feature extraction network with the input map as supervision tends to remove artifacts from the input and can act as a powerful correspondence denoising mechanism, both between individual pairs and within a collection. With these observations in hand, we propose a two-stage unsupervised paradigm for shape matching by (i) performing unsupervised training by adapting an existing approach to obtain an initial set of noisy matches, and (ii) using these matches to train a network in a supervised manner. We demonstrate that this approach significantly improves the accuracy of the maps, especially when trained within a collection. We show that NCP is data-efficient, fast, and achieves state-of-the-art results on many tasks. Our code can be found online:
PDF NeurIPS 2022, 10 pages, 9 figures


Vision Based Machine Learning Algorithms for Out-of-Distribution Generalisation

Authors:Hamza Riaz, Alan F. Smeaton

There are many computer vision applications including object segmentation, classification, object detection, and reconstruction for which machine learning (ML) shows state-of-the-art performance. Nowadays, we can build ML tools for such applications with real-world accuracy. However, each tool works well within the domain in which it has been trained and developed. Often, when we train a model on a dataset in one specific domain and test on another unseen domain known as an out of distribution (OOD) dataset, models or ML tools show a decrease in performance. For instance, when we train a simple classifier on real-world images and apply that model on the same classes but with a different domain like cartoons, paintings or sketches then the performance of ML tools disappoints. This presents serious challenges of domain generalisation (DG), domain adaptation (DA), and domain shifting. To enhance the power of ML tools, we can rebuild and retrain models from scratch or we can perform transfer learning. In this paper, we present a comparison study between vision-based technologies for domain-specific and domain-generalised methods. In this research we highlight that simple convolutional neural network (CNN) based deep learning methods perform poorly when they have to tackle domain shifting. Experiments are conducted on two popular vision-based benchmarks, PACS and Office-Home. We introduce an implementation pipeline for domain generalisation methods and conventional deep learning models. The outcome confirms that CNN-based deep learning models show poor generalisation compare to other extensive methods.
PDF Computing Conference, 22-23 June 2023, London, United Kingdom. 15 pages, 5 Figures, 3 Tables


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