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2022-12-08 更新

Towards Transferable Unrestricted Adversarial Examples with Minimum Changes

Authors:Fangcheng Liu, Chao Zhang, Hongyang Zhang

Transfer-based adversarial example is one of the most important classes of black-box attacks. However, there is a trade-off between transferability and imperceptibility of the adversarial perturbation. Prior work in this direction often requires a fixed but large $\ell_p$-norm perturbation budget to reach a good transfer success rate, leading to perceptible adversarial perturbations. On the other hand, most of the current unrestricted adversarial attacks that aim to generate semantic-preserving perturbations suffer from weaker transferability to the target model. In this work, we propose a geometry-aware framework to generate transferable adversarial examples with minimum changes. Analogous to model selection in statistical machine learning, we leverage a validation model to select the optimal perturbation budget for each image under both the $\ell_{\infty}$-norm and unrestricted threat models. Extensive experiments verify the effectiveness of our framework on balancing imperceptibility and transferability of the crafted adversarial examples. The methodology is the foundation of our entry to the CVPR’21 Security AI Challenger: Unrestricted Adversarial Attacks on ImageNet, in which we ranked 1st place out of 1,559 teams and surpassed the runner-up submissions by 4.59% and 23.91% in terms of final score and average image quality level, respectively. Code is available at https://github.com/Equationliu/GA-Attack.
PDF First place in the CVPR’21 Security AI Challenger: Unrestricted Adversarial Attacks on ImageNet

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Imperceptible Adversarial Attack via Invertible Neural Networks

Authors:Zihan Chen, Ziyue Wang, Junjie Huang, Wentao Zhao, Xiao Liu, Dejian Guan

Adding perturbations via utilizing auxiliary gradient information or discarding existing details of the benign images are two common approaches for generating adversarial examples. Though visual imperceptibility is the desired property of adversarial examples, conventional adversarial attacks still generate traceable adversarial perturbations. In this paper, we introduce a novel Adversarial Attack via Invertible Neural Networks (AdvINN) method to produce robust and imperceptible adversarial examples. Specifically, AdvINN fully takes advantage of the information preservation property of Invertible Neural Networks and thereby generates adversarial examples by simultaneously adding class-specific semantic information of the target class and dropping discriminant information of the original class. Extensive experiments on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet-1K demonstrate that the proposed AdvINN method can produce less imperceptible adversarial images than the state-of-the-art methods and AdvINN yields more robust adversarial examples with high confidence compared to other adversarial attacks.
PDF

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Fooling the Eyes of Autonomous Vehicles: Robust Physical Adversarial Examples Against Traffic Sign Recognition Systems

Authors:Wei Jia, Zhaojun Lu, Haichun Zhang, Zhenglin Liu, Jie Wang, Gang Qu

Adversarial Examples (AEs) can deceive Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) and have received a lot of attention recently. However, majority of the research on AEs is in the digital domain and the adversarial patches are static, which is very different from many real-world DNN applications such as Traffic Sign Recognition (TSR) systems in autonomous vehicles. In TSR systems, object detectors use DNNs to process streaming video in real time. From the view of object detectors, the traffic sign`s position and quality of the video are continuously changing, rendering the digital AEs ineffective in the physical world. In this paper, we propose a systematic pipeline to generate robust physical AEs against real-world object detectors. Robustness is achieved in three ways. First, we simulate the in-vehicle cameras by extending the distribution of image transformations with the blur transformation and the resolution transformation. Second, we design the single and multiple bounding boxes filters to improve the efficiency of the perturbation training. Third, we consider four representative attack vectors, namely Hiding Attack, Appearance Attack, Non-Target Attack and Target Attack. We perform a comprehensive set of experiments under a variety of environmental conditions, and considering illuminations in sunny and cloudy weather as well as at night. The experimental results show that the physical AEs generated from our pipeline are effective and robust when attacking the YOLO v5 based TSR system. The attacks have good transferability and can deceive other state-of-the-art object detectors. We launched HA and NTA on a brand-new 2021 model vehicle. Both attacks are successful in fooling the TSR system, which could be a life-threatening case for autonomous vehicles. Finally, we discuss three defense mechanisms based on image preprocessing, AEs detection, and model enhancing.
PDF 17 pages, 15 figures

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