2022-09-11 更新

Towards Open-Set Text Recognition via Label-to-Prototype Learning

Authors:Chang Liu, Chun Yang, Hai-Bo Qin, Xiaobin Zhu, Cheng-Lin Liu, Xu-Cheng Yin

Scene text recognition is a popular topic and extensively used in the industry. Although many methods have achieved satisfactory performance for the close-set text recognition challenges, these methods lose feasibility in open-set scenarios, where collecting data or retraining models for novel characters could yield a high cost. For example, annotating samples for foreign languages can be expensive, whereas retraining the model each time when a novel character is discovered from historical documents costs both time and resources. In this paper, we introduce and formulate a new open-set text recognition task which demands the capability to spot and recognize novel characters without retraining. A label-to-prototype learning framework is also proposed as a baseline for the proposed task. Specifically, the framework introduces a generalizable label-to-prototype mapping function to build prototypes (class centers) for both seen and unseen classes. An open-set predictor is then utilized to recognize or reject samples according to the prototypes. The implementation of rejection capability over out-of-set characters allows automatic spotting of unknown characters in the incoming data stream. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves promising performance on a variety of zero-shot, close-set, and open-set text recognition datasets
PDF V3 is a major revision of v2, should be close to the final form


Towards Open Set Video Anomaly Detection

Authors:Yuansheng Zhu, Wentao Bao, Qi Yu

Open Set Video Anomaly Detection (OpenVAD) aims to identify abnormal events from video data where both known anomalies and novel ones exist in testing. Unsupervised models learned solely from normal videos are applicable to any testing anomalies but suffer from a high false positive rate. In contrast, weakly supervised methods are effective in detecting known anomalies but could fail in an open world. We develop a novel weakly supervised method for the OpenVAD problem by integrating evidential deep learning (EDL) and normalizing flows (NFs) into a multiple instance learning (MIL) framework. Specifically, we propose to use graph neural networks and triplet loss to learn discriminative features for training the EDL classifier, where the EDL is capable of identifying the unknown anomalies by quantifying the uncertainty. Moreover, we develop an uncertainty-aware selection strategy to obtain clean anomaly instances and a NFs module to generate the pseudo anomalies. Our method is superior to existing approaches by inheriting the advantages of both the unsupervised NFs and the weakly-supervised MIL framework. Experimental results on multiple real-world video datasets show the effectiveness of our method.
PDF Accepted to ECCV 2022


Temporal Flow Mask Attention for Open-Set Long-Tailed Recognition of Wild Animals in Camera-Trap Images

Authors:Jeongsoo Kim, Sangmin Woo, Byeongjun Park, Changick Kim

Camera traps, unmanned observation devices, and deep learning-based image recognition systems have greatly reduced human effort in collecting and analyzing wildlife images. However, data collected via above apparatus exhibits 1) long-tailed and 2) open-ended distribution problems. To tackle the open-set long-tailed recognition problem, we propose the Temporal Flow Mask Attention Network that comprises three key building blocks: 1) an optical flow module, 2) an attention residual module, and 3) a meta-embedding classifier. We extract temporal features of sequential frames using the optical flow module and learn informative representation using attention residual blocks. Moreover, we show that applying the meta-embedding technique boosts the performance of the method in open-set long-tailed recognition. We apply this method on a Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) dataset. We conduct extensive experiments, and quantitative and qualitative analyses to prove that our method effectively tackles the open-set long-tailed recognition problem while being robust to unknown classes.


Dual Decision Improves Open-Set Panoptic Segmentation

Authors:Hai-Ming Xu, Hao Chen, Lingqiao Liu, Yufei Yin

Open-set panoptic segmentation (OPS) problem is a new research direction aiming to perform segmentation for both \known classes and \unknown classes, i.e., the objects (“things”) that are never annotated in the training set. The main challenges of OPS are twofold: (1) the infinite possibility of the \unknown object appearances makes it difficult to model them from a limited number of training data. (2) at training time, we are only provided with the “void” category, which essentially mixes the “unknown thing” and “background” classes. We empirically find that directly using “void” category to supervise \known class or “background” classifiers without screening will lead to an unsatisfied OPS result. In this paper, we propose a divide-and-conquer scheme to develop a dual decision process for OPS. We show that by properly combining a \known class discriminator with an additional class-agnostic object prediction head, the OPS performance can be significantly improved. Specifically, we first propose to create a classifier with only \known categories and let the “void” class proposals achieve low prediction probability from those categories. Then we distinguish the “unknown things” from the background by using the additional object prediction head. To further boost performance, we introduce “unknown things” pseudo-labels generated from up-to-date models to enrich the training set. Our extensive experimental evaluation shows that our approach significantly improves \unknown class panoptic quality, with more than 30\% relative improvements than the existing best-performed method.


Multi-Attribute Open Set Recognition

Authors:Piyapat Saranrittichai, Chaithanya Kumar Mummadi, Claudia Blaiotta, Mauricio Munoz, Volker Fischer

Open Set Recognition (OSR) extends image classification to an open-world setting, by simultaneously classifying known classes and identifying unknown ones. While conventional OSR approaches can detect Out-of-Distribution (OOD) samples, they cannot provide explanations indicating which underlying visual attribute(s) (e.g., shape, color or background) cause a specific sample to be unknown. In this work, we introduce a novel problem setup that generalizes conventional OSR to a multi-attribute setting, where multiple visual attributes are simultaneously recognized. Here, OOD samples can be not only identified but also categorized by their unknown attribute(s). We propose simple extensions of common OSR baselines to handle this novel scenario. We show that these baselines are vulnerable to shortcuts when spurious correlations exist in the training dataset. This leads to poor OOD performance which, according to our experiments, is mainly due to unintended cross-attribute correlations of the predicted confidence scores. We provide an empirical evidence showing that this behavior is consistent across different baselines on both synthetic and real world datasets.
PDF Accepted for publication at German Conference for Pattern Recognition (GCPR) 2022


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