2022-09-06 更新

Few-Shot Class-Incremental Learning from an Open-Set Perspective

Authors:Can Peng, Kun Zhao, Tianren Wang, Meng Li, Brian C. Lovell

The continual appearance of new objects in the visual world poses considerable challenges for current deep learning methods in real-world deployments. The challenge of new task learning is often exacerbated by the scarcity of data for the new categories due to rarity or cost. Here we explore the important task of Few-Shot Class-Incremental Learning (FSCIL) and its extreme data scarcity condition of one-shot. An ideal FSCIL model needs to perform well on all classes, regardless of their presentation order or paucity of data. It also needs to be robust to open-set real-world conditions and be easily adapted to the new tasks that always arise in the field. In this paper, we first reevaluate the current task setting and propose a more comprehensive and practical setting for the FSCIL task. Then, inspired by the similarity of the goals for FSCIL and modern face recognition systems, we propose our method — Augmented Angular Loss Incremental Classification or ALICE. In ALICE, instead of the commonly used cross-entropy loss, we propose to use the angular penalty loss to obtain well-clustered features. As the obtained features not only need to be compactly clustered but also diverse enough to maintain generalization for future incremental classes, we further discuss how class augmentation, data augmentation, and data balancing affect classification performance. Experiments on benchmark datasets, including CIFAR100, miniImageNet, and CUB200, demonstrate the improved performance of ALICE over the state-of-the-art FSCIL methods.
PDF Accepted to ECCV 2022


Domain Adaptation under Open Set Label Shift

Authors:Saurabh Garg, Sivaraman Balakrishnan, Zachary C. Lipton

We introduce the problem of domain adaptation under Open Set Label Shift (OSLS) where the label distribution can change arbitrarily and a new class may arrive during deployment, but the class-conditional distributions p(x|y) are domain-invariant. OSLS subsumes domain adaptation under label shift and Positive-Unlabeled (PU) learning. The learner’s goals here are two-fold: (a) estimate the target label distribution, including the novel class; and (b) learn a target classifier. First, we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for identifying these quantities. Second, motivated by advances in label shift and PU learning, we propose practical methods for both tasks that leverage black-box predictors. Unlike typical Open Set Domain Adaptation (OSDA) problems, which tend to be ill-posed and amenable only to heuristics, OSLS offers a well-posed problem amenable to more principled machinery. Experiments across numerous semi-synthetic benchmarks on vision, language, and medical datasets demonstrate that our methods consistently outperform OSDA baselines, achieving 10—25% improvements in target domain accuracy. Finally, we analyze the proposed methods, establishing finite-sample convergence to the true label marginal and convergence to optimal classifier for linear models in a Gaussian setup. Code is available at


OpenCoS: Contrastive Semi-supervised Learning for Handling Open-set Unlabeled Data

Authors:Jongjin Park, Sukmin Yun, Jongheon Jeong, Jinwoo Shin

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) has been a powerful strategy to incorporate few labels in learning better representations. In this paper, we focus on a practical scenario that one aims to apply SSL when unlabeled data may contain out-of-class samples - those that cannot have one-hot encoded labels from a closed-set of classes in label data, i.e., the unlabeled data is an open-set. Specifically, we introduce OpenCoS, a simple framework for handling this realistic semi-supervised learning scenario based upon a recent framework of self-supervised visual representation learning. We first observe that the out-of-class samples in the open-set unlabeled dataset can be identified effectively via self-supervised contrastive learning. Then, OpenCoS utilizes this information to overcome the failure modes in the existing state-of-the-art semi-supervised methods, by utilizing one-hot pseudo-labels and soft-labels for the identified in- and out-of-class unlabeled data, respectively. Our extensive experimental results show the effectiveness of OpenCoS under the presence of out-of-class samples, fixing up the state-of-the-art semi-supervised methods to be suitable for diverse scenarios involving open-set unlabeled data.
PDF ECCV Workshop on Learning from Limited and Imperfect Data, 2022. Code is available at


The Familiarity Hypothesis: Explaining the Behavior of Deep Open Set Methods

Authors:Thomas G. Dietterich, Alexander Guyer

In many object recognition applications, the set of possible categories is an open set, and the deployed recognition system will encounter novel objects belonging to categories unseen during training. Detecting such “novel category” objects is usually formulated as an anomaly detection problem. Anomaly detection algorithms for feature-vector data identify anomalies as outliers, but outlier detection has not worked well in deep learning. Instead, methods based on the computed logits of visual object classifiers give state-of-the-art performance. This paper proposes the Familiarity Hypothesis that these methods succeed because they are detecting the absence of familiar learned features rather than the presence of novelty. This distinction is important, because familiarity-based detection will fail in many situations where novelty is present. For example when an image contains both a novel object and a familiar one, the familiarity score will be high, so the novel object will not be noticed. The paper reviews evidence from the literature and presents additional evidence from our own experiments that provide strong support for this hypothesis. The paper concludes with a discussion of whether familiarity-based detection is an inevitable consequence of representation learning.
PDF Accepted for publication in Pattern Recognition. This version corrects minor typos


Deep Open-Set Recognition for Silicon Wafer Production Monitoring

Authors:Luca Frittoli, Diego Carrera, Beatrice Rossi, Pasqualina Fragneto, Giacomo Boracchi

The chips contained in any electronic device are manufactured over circular silicon wafers, which are monitored by inspection machines at different production stages. Inspection machines detect and locate any defect within the wafer and return a Wafer Defect Map (WDM), i.e., a list of the coordinates where defects lie, which can be considered a huge, sparse, and binary image. In normal conditions, wafers exhibit a small number of randomly distributed defects, while defects grouped in specific patterns might indicate known or novel categories of failures in the production line. Needless to say, a primary concern of semiconductor industries is to identify these patterns and intervene as soon as possible to restore normal production conditions. Here we address WDM monitoring as an open-set recognition problem to accurately classify WDM in known categories and promptly detect novel patterns. In particular, we propose a comprehensive pipeline for wafer monitoring based on a Submanifold Sparse Convolutional Network, a deep architecture designed to process sparse data at an arbitrary resolution, which is trained on the known classes. To detect novelties, we define an outlier detector based on a Gaussian Mixture Model fitted on the latent representation of the classifier. Our experiments on a real dataset of WDMs show that directly processing full-resolution WDMs by Submanifold Sparse Convolutions yields superior classification performance on known classes than traditional Convolutional Neural Networks, which require a preliminary binning to reduce the size of the binary images representing WDMs. Moreover, our solution outperforms state-of-the-art open-set recognition solutions in detecting novelties.


State Of The Art In Open-Set Iris Presentation Attack Detection

Authors:Aidan Boyd, Jeremy Speth, Lucas Parzianello, Kevin Bowyer, Adam Czajka

Research in presentation attack detection (PAD) for iris recognition has largely moved beyond evaluation in “closed-set” scenarios, to emphasize ability to generalize to presentation attack types not present in the training data. This paper offers several contributions to understand and extend the state-of-the-art in open-set iris PAD. First, it describes the most authoritative evaluation to date of iris PAD. We have curated the largest publicly-available image dataset for this problem, drawing from 26 benchmarks previously released by various groups, and adding 150,000 images being released with the journal version of this paper, to create a set of 450,000 images representing authentic iris and seven types of presentation attack instrument (PAI). We formulate a leave-one-PAI-out evaluation protocol, and show that even the best algorithms in the closed-set evaluations exhibit catastrophic failures on multiple attack types in the open-set scenario. This includes algorithms performing well in the most recent LivDet-Iris 2020 competition, which may come from the fact that the LivDet-Iris protocol emphasizes sequestered images rather than unseen attack types. Second, we evaluate the accuracy of five open-source iris presentation attack algorithms available today, one of which is newly-proposed in this paper, and build an ensemble method that beats the winner of the LivDet-Iris 2020 by a substantial margin. This paper demonstrates that closed-set iris PAD, when all PAIs are known during training, is a solved problem, with multiple algorithms showing very high accuracy, while open-set iris PAD, when evaluated correctly, is far from being solved. The newly-created dataset, new open-source algorithms, and evaluation protocol, made publicly available with the journal version of this paper, provide the experimental artifacts that researchers can use to measure progress on this important problem.


Open-set Recognition via Augmentation-based Similarity Learning

Authors:Sepideh Esmaeilpour, Lei Shu, Bing Liu

The primary assumption of conventional supervised learning or classification is that the test samples are drawn from the same distribution as the training samples, which is called closed set learning or classification. In many practical scenarios, this is not the case because there are unknowns or unseen class samples in the test data, which is called the open set scenario, and the unknowns need to be detected. This problem is referred to as the open set recognition problem and is important in safety-critical applications. We propose to detect unknowns (or unseen class samples) through learning pairwise similarities. The proposed method works in two steps. It first learns a closed set classifier using the seen classes that have appeared in training and then learns how to compare seen classes with pseudo-unseen (automatically generated unseen class samples). The pseudo-unseen generation is carried out by performing distribution shifting augmentations on the seen or training samples. We call our method OPG (Open set recognition based on Pseudo unseen data Generation). The experimental evaluation shows that the learned similarity-based features can successfully distinguish seen from unseen in benchmark datasets for open set recognition.


Open-Set Semi-Supervised Object Detection

Authors:Yen-Cheng Liu, Chih-Yao Ma, Xiaoliang Dai, Junjiao Tian, Peter Vajda, Zijian He, Zsolt Kira

Recent developments for Semi-Supervised Object Detection (SSOD) have shown the promise of leveraging unlabeled data to improve an object detector. However, thus far these methods have assumed that the unlabeled data does not contain out-of-distribution (OOD) classes, which is unrealistic with larger-scale unlabeled datasets. In this paper, we consider a more practical yet challenging problem, Open-Set Semi-Supervised Object Detection (OSSOD). We first find the existing SSOD method obtains a lower performance gain in open-set conditions, and this is caused by the semantic expansion, where the distracting OOD objects are mispredicted as in-distribution pseudo-labels for the semi-supervised training. To address this problem, we consider online and offline OOD detection modules, which are integrated with SSOD methods. With the extensive studies, we found that leveraging an offline OOD detector based on a self-supervised vision transformer performs favorably against online OOD detectors due to its robustness to the interference of pseudo-labeling. In the experiment, our proposed framework effectively addresses the semantic expansion issue and shows consistent improvements on many OSSOD benchmarks, including large-scale COCO-OpenImages. We also verify the effectiveness of our framework under different OSSOD conditions, including varying numbers of in-distribution classes, different degrees of supervision, and different combinations of unlabeled sets.
PDF Project Page is at


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